PINNED:  index

Software
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|        |   +-reflection
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V
emacs

Emacs-lisp  Org-mode  lispy  org-brain

$NOTES/ws/english/words.txt$NOTES/learn.txt
$NOTES/arxiv.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/abstract-algebra.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/ade.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/algorithm-analysis.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/algorithms.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/analysis.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/ansible.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/apis.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/architecture.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/artificial-intelligence-ai.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/arxiv.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/astrophysics.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/automation.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/autonomy.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/aws-amazon-web-services.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/big-query.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/biochemistry.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/blockchain.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/brain-computer-interface-bci.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/build-tools.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/can-bus.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/celery.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/chemistry.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/chinese-words.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/cicd.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/cli.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/cloud.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/compilers.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/complexity.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/compression.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/computation.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/computer-science.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/computer-vision.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/computing.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/configuration-management.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/consensus.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/continuous-integration.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/continuous.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/conversational-ai.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/cpp.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/crash-reporting.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/cryptography.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/databases.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/data-mining.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/data-science.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/data-structures-algorithms.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/decentralised-workforce-human-cloud.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/decision-tree-learning.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/deep-learning.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/deployment.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/devops.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/diagrams-graphs-charts.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/docker.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/dotnet.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/electricity.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/elk-elastic-search.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/emacs-lisp.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/emacs.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/english-punctuation.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/english.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/epigraphy.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/extrasensory-perception-esp.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/facebook-research.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/facebook.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/finances.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/fluid-mechanics.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/fmea-failure-mode-and-effects-analysis.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/formal-languages.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/fortescue.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/french.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/functional-programming-fp.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/gdb.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/general-ai-agi.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/general.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/genetic-algorithms.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/genetics.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/geometry.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/github-semantic.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/gitlab.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/golang.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/google-cloud.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/gps.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/graph-theory.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/hardware-infrastructure.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/hardware.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/hashicorp.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/hashing.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/haskell.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/hawaiian.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/hdf.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/hil-hardware-in-the-loop.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/history.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/information-retrieval.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/information-theory.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/infrastructure.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/internet.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/inventions.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/ip-networking.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/javascript.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/jobs.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/keras.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/kernel.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/knowledge.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/kubernetes-k8s.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/lambda-calculus.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/language-agnostic-programming.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/law.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/licenses.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/linear-algebra.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/linguistics.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/linux.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/lisp-based-languages.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/lisp.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/logic.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/machine-learning.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/make.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/maori.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/marketing.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/markup-languages.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/mathematical-algorithms.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/math.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/mechanical-engineering.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/metaphysics.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/microservices.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/mining-wa.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/mocking.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/morse-code.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/neural-ir.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/neuroscience.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/nix.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/nlp-natural-language-processing.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/nmt-neural-machine-translation.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/number-theory.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/numpy.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/oauth2.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/object-oriented.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/oncology.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/ontology.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/openai.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/open-source-alternatives.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/operating-systems.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/operations.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/optimization.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/pacific-edge.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/parapsychology.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/parsers.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/part-of-speech-labels.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/pathology.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/people.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/perl.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/pharmacy.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/philosophy.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/php.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/phylogenetics.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/physics.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/platform-engineering.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/preprocessing.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/probabilistic-data-structures.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/probability.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/problog.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/programming-challenges.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/programming-idioms.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/programming-languages.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/programming.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/prolog.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/provisioning.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/psychology.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/puppet.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/purescript.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/python.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/quantum-algorithms.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/racket.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/random-number-generation.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/rasa.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/rat.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/reading.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/regular-expressions-regex.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/reinforcement-learning.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/research.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/risk-management.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/r-lang.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/robotics.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/robots.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/rocket-lab.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/ros2.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/rosie.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/ros.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/ruby.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/rust.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/scheme.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/science.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/security.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/self-reflection.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/slam.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/software-architecture.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/software-development.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/software-engineering.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/space-flight.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/space.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/spacy.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/spark.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/statistics.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/streaming.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/sysadmin-system-administration.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/systemd.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/systems-engineering.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/tcl.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/tech.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/telecommunications.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/telemetry.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/tensorflow.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/terraform.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/testing.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/thinking.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/time-management.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/tooling.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/unix.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/usa-united-states-of-america.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/virtualisation.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/virtual-reality.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/visualisation.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/vmware.txt
$NOTES/ws/glossaries/web-development.txt$NOTES/ws/glossaries/world.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/adjectives.txt$NOTES/ws/english/collocations.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/colloquy.txt$NOTES/ws/english/definitions.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/etymology.txt$NOTES/ws/english/fav-phrases.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/fav-words.txt$NOTES/ws/english/glossary.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/idioms.txt$NOTES/ws/english/made-up-words.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/metaphors.txt$NOTES/ws/english/misspellings.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/my-words.txt$NOTES/ws/english/old.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/phrases.txt$NOTES/ws/english/references.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/scratch.txt$NOTES/ws/english/slang.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/terms.txt$NOTES/ws/english/usage.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/useful-phrases.txt$NOTES/ws/english/use-more.txt
$NOTES/ws/english/words2.txt$NOTES/ws/english/words.txt

$NOTES/ws/english/words.txt ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ meritocracy Meritocracy is a political system in which economic goods and/or political power are vested in individual people on the basis of talent, effort, and achievement, rather than wealth or social class. Advancement in such a system is based on performance, as measured through examination or demonstrated achievement. fixture A piece of equipment or furniture which is fixed in position in a building or vehicle. fraternization Turning people into brothers by conducting social relations with people who are actually unrelated and/or of a different class (especially those with whom one works) as if they were siblings, family members, personal friends, or lovers. To fraternize also means to become allies with someone, especially the enemy. vindictive Having or showing a strong or unreasoning desire for revenge. abyssopelagic A layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean. "Abyss" derives from the Greek word ἄβυσσος, meaning bottomless. At depths of 3,000 to 6,000 metres, this zone remains in perpetual darkness. It alone makes up over 83% of the ocean and covers 60% of the Earth. aspirational Having or characterized by aspirations to achieve social prestige and material success. boilerplate Boilerplate text Any written text that can be reused in new contexts or applications without significant changes to the original. The term is used in reference to statements, contracts and computer code, and is used in the media to refer to hackneyed or unoriginal writing. thingim-ebob Used to refer to or address a person or thing whose name one has forgotten, does not know, or does not wish to mention. NLG: A thingamajig. NLG: an object whose name is unknown or has been forgotten. thingamajig NLG: A thing of no importance; an object whose name is forgotten or not known. "you'll need a thingamajig to open it" industrious What an industrious empire contentious Causing or likely to cause an argument; controversial. prescient Having or showing knowledge of events before they take place. pertinent Here are the pertinent section of my init.el zero-day Winzen said that it happened on Thursday night, a day after a PHP zero-day exploit was leaked. cursory only have a cursory knowledge of bespoke Example: We have bespoke libraries and often lots of them. (of goods, especially clothing) made to order. "a bespoke suit" (of a trader) making bespoke items of clothing. "the bespoke tailors of Savile Row" (of a computer program) written or adapted for a specific user or purpose. "completely bespoke software systems" operatic extravagantly theatrical; histrionic. vestige A trace or remnant of something that is disappearing or no longer exists. ossified Turn into bone or bony tissue. onerous (of a task or responsibility) involving a great deal of effort, trouble, or difficulty. karmic relating to or characteristic of karma. "the karmic wheel of life" When IBM, in its ever-present omnipotence, needed to base their “edlin” on a Unix standard, did they mimic vi? No. Emacs? Surely you jest. They chose the most karmic editor of all. The standard. soda soda pop pop fizzy fizzy drink lolly water seltzer tonic starlet A young actress with aspirations to become a star. sanguine parasitizing visceral relating to deep inward feelings rather than to the intellect. Example: "the voters' visceral fear of change" parabiosis Young blood transfusion refers to transfusing blood specifically from a young person into an older one with the intention of creating a medicinal benefit. subsidy government incentive A form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. adulation Excessive admiration or praise. Flattery The act of giving excessive compliments, generally for the purpose of ingratiating oneself with the subject. prerogative A right or privilege exclusive to a particular individual or class. https://youtu.be/KGH7W3m4UZE?t=9 prih-rog-at-ive pertinent Relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite. first-class citizen You can toss them around just like variables. resilient Able to withstand or recover quickly from difficult conditions. Able to recoil or spring back into shape after bending, stretching, or being compressed. metonymy The substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the turf for horse racing. Synecdoche "syn ec do key" A synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something or vice versa. A synecdoche is a class of metonymy, often by means of either mentioning a part for the whole or conversely the whole for one of its parts. Examples from common English expressions include "suits" (for "businessmen"), "boots" (for "soldiers") (pars pro toto), and "America" (for "the United States of America") (totum pro parte). reconcile 1. restore friendly relations between. "the king and the archbishop were publicly reconciled" 2. make (one account) consistent with another, especially by allowing for transactions begun but not yet completed. "it is not necessary to reconcile the cost accounts to the financial accounts" slew The noun slew is from the Irish Gaelic sluagh, meaning "multitude." As an unrelated verb, it's the past tense of slay. scuttle The captain is going to scuttle the ship. To sink or attempt to sink by making holes through the bottom. 2 : destroy, wreck . prose Written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure. snark Noun sense of “snide remarks”. Derogatory or mocking in an indirect way. Devious and underhand. collocation idiosyncratic Relating to idiosyncrasy; peculiar or individual. Motif Unladen Not carrying a load. bemusement puzzlement leery Cautious or wary due to realistic suspicions. nascent (especially of a process or organization) just coming into existence and beginning to display signs of future potential. sigil An inscribed or painted symbol considered to have magical power. Special characters in a programming language, such as$ before a variable name
in perl.

threshold
"The limit before X."

The magnitude or intensity that must be
exceeded for a certain reaction,
phenomenon, result, or condition to occur
3or be manifested.

venial sin
A lesser sin that does not result in a
complete separation from God and eternal
damnation in Hell as an unrepented mortal
sin would.

earnest
Resulting from or showing sincere and
intense conviction.

pedagogical
Relating to teaching.

plebe
A newly entered cadet or freshman,
especially at a military or naval academy.

Conflation
1. A blowing together, as of many instruments in a concert,
or of many fires in a foundry. [R.] --Bacon.
[1913 Webster]

2. a fusing together; merger of two or more things or ideas
into one.
[PJC]

Tenacious
1. Holding fast, or inclined to hold fast; inclined to retain
what is in possession; as, men tenacious of their just
rights.
[1913 Webster]

2. Apt to retain; retentive; as, a tenacious memory.
[1913 Webster]

pretentious
Attempting to impress by affecting greater
importance or merit than is actually
possessed.

amenable
Open and responsive to suggestion; easily

sensationalism
The use of exciting or shocking stories or
language at the expense of accuracy, in
order to provoke public interest or
excitement.

groupthink
Thinking or making decisions as a group in
a way that discourages creativity or
individual responsibility.

sizzurp
cough syrup containing codeine and
promethazine to a carbonated soft drink,
consumed as a recreational drug.

Warn or reprimand someone firmly.

An act or action of admonishing;
authoritative counsel or warning.

Price gouging
A pejorative term referring to when a
seller spikes the prices of goods,
services or commodities to a level much
higher than is considered reasonable or
fair, and is considered exploitative,
potentially to an unethical extent.

misgiving
A feeling of doubt or apprehension about
the outcome or consequences of something.

disdain
The feeling that someone or something is
unworthy of one's consideration or
respect.

Rashly
Without careful consideration of the
possible consequences; impetuously.

Scrutiny
Critical observation or examination.

Fixation

Centralization
Different from attention.
Different from focus.

A goal to be desired and difficult to
attain.

Absorption

Contemplation
The action of looking thoughtfully at
something for a long time.

Deep reflective thought.

Rumination
The focused attention on the symptoms of
one's distress, and on its possible causes
and consequences, as opposed to its
solutions.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumination_(psychology)

awhile
for a short time.

lobotomize
perform a lobotomy on.
lobotomized"

make (someone) less able to function mentally or emotionally.
"couples we knew who had been lobotomized by the birth of their
children"

indictment
A criminal accusation that a person has committed a crime.

salient
outstanding, striking

profusely
abundantly, copiously, profusely, extravagantly

Pedantry
Excessive concern with minor details and rules.

libation
A drink poured out as an offering to a deity.

sensualist
A person devoted to physical, especially sexual, pleasure.

azimuth
direction from an observer

engender
cause or give rise to (a feeling,
situation, or condition).

"The trust you engender."

liaison
Communication or cooperation which
facilitates a close working relationship
between people or organizations.

archetype
A statement, pattern of behavior, or
prototype (model) which other statements,
patterns of behavior, and objects copy or
emulate.

I think the emphasis is on the fact that
other things "try" (in the effort sense)
to emulate an archetype.

That means an archetype represents an
ideal thing, rather than simply being a
'sketch'.

A prototype on the other hand is not
expected to be perfect.

unbecoming

prerogative
[#law]

An exclusive right bestowed by a
government or state and invested in an
individual or corporation, the content of
which is separate from the body of rights
enjoyed under the general law. It was a
common facet of feudal law.

punitive
disciplinary, corrective, correctional, retributive.

punitive measures.

inflicting or intended as punishment.
"he called for punitive measures against the Eastern bloc"

congruency
Try not to be incongruent
Congruency is when what you're saying
and how you're saying it match.

euphemistic
inoffensive

(vs. dysphemistic)

dysphemistic
offensive

(vs. euphemistic)

replete
satiated
filled to satisfaction

fatalistic
relating to or characteristic of the
belief that all events are predetermined
and therefore inevitable.

incorporeal
discorporate, unembodied, bodiless, unbodied, disembodied, spiritual

concede
conceded
Admit or agree that something is true
after first denying or resisting it.

Example
- the possibility of other universes has
been scientifically conceded.

Impeachment
The process by which a legislative body
levels charges against a government
official.

It does not mean removal from office; it
is only a statement of charges, akin to an
indictment in criminal law.

misapprehension
[rare noun]

misconception

obnoxious
extremely unpleasant.

attenuate
weaken.

polyamorous
The practice of, or desire for, intimate
relationships with more than one partner,
with the consent of all partners involved.

It has been described as "consensual,
ethical, and responsible non-monogamy".

enigmatic
Incomprehensible.

ABL
ablative
ablative case
[#latin]
[#sanskrit]

The case indicating the agent in passive
sentences or the instrument or manner or
place of the action described by the verb)

The ablative case is found in ancient languages such as Latin and
Sanskrit, as well as modern languages like Turkish and Hungarian.

lascivious
sexy

rapport
A close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups
concerned understand each other's feelings or ideas and communicate
well.

curiosity

contrivances

pretence
An attempt to make something that is not the case appear true.

poised
Having a composed and self-assured manner.

pertinent
Relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite.

concordantly
Agreeing; harmonious

ergo
[#latin]

therefore

Vis-a-vis
Fancy way of saying "in regard to" or
"compared to," as in: "He was
substantially underpaid vis-a-vis other
researchers."

apropos
Said "apropo".

- with reference to; concerning.
- Of an appropriate or pertinent nature.
- by the way, incidental.

concessions
Example:
"extracted concessions", tried to escape.

wordsmith

juncture
A particular point in events or time.

contempt

rebuttal

vernacular
slang, cant, jargon, lingo, argot, patois, vernacular

blip

emoting

faux

immolation
Sacrifice.

Always involves a sacrifice or offering of
some sort.

The word often invokes burning, a common
method of sacrifice.

fortuitous

nonconformist
Someone who doesn't conform to other
people's ideas of how things should be.

Activists, artists, street performers,
your wacky uncle Marvin — anyone who
marches to the beat of a different drummer
is a nonconformist.

Nonconformist is one of those words that
has both a noun and an adjective form.

reductive
Example:
A typically reductive inquiry, doctor.

derotation
A rotation in the opposite direction.

spangled

moniker
Here are some of the issues with pgen that
annoy me.

The “1” in the LL(1) moniker implies that
it uses only a single token lookahead, and
this limits our ability of writing nice
grammar rules.

vindictive
Having or showing a strong or unreasoning
desire for revenge.

go-between
mediator

outrageous, egregious, preposterous
Jackie Chiles quote.

egregious

polysemy
lexical ambiguity.

The ambiguity of an individual word or
phrase that can be used (in different
contexts) to express two or more different
meanings.

hypernym
superordinate word
superordinate
A word that is more generic than a given
word.

collocation
[corpus linguistics]

The habitual juxtaposition of a particular
word with another word or words with a
frequency greater than chance.

Examples:
- strong tea
- heavy drinker

bigram
A pair of consecutive written units such
as letters, syllables, or words.

inexactitude
The quality of being inaccurate and having
errors.

gratis
Something that is available without charge
or cost.

libre
The most common Spanish adjective for
"free"-but it isn't used to refer to
something that is available without charge
or cost.

For that, the word to use almost always is
gratis.

syndicate

Kleptocracy
Government with corrupt leaders that use
their power to exploit the people and
natural resources of their own territory
in order to extend their personal wealth
and political powers.

Typically, this system involves
embezzlement of funds at the expense of
the wider population.

innocuous

dewy-eyed
Having eyes that are moist with tears
(used typically to indicate that a person
is nostalgic, naive, or sentimental).

pedantic
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pedantic

chorale

meronyms
A term which denotes part of something but
which is used to refer to the whole of it,
e.g. faces when used to mean people in I
see several familiar faces present.

Coordinate Terms (sisters)
A term which shares a hypernym with
another.

euphemism
A mild or indirect word or expression
substituted for one considered to be too
harsh or blunt when referring to something
unpleasant or embarrassing.

assiduously
With great care and persistence.

Someone who presides, judges, and
arbitrates during a formal dispute or
competition.

They have numerous purposes, including
preliminary legal judgments, to determine
applicant eligibility, or to assess
contenders' performance in competitions.

protracted
lasting for a long time or longer than
expected or usual.

Autodidacticism
autodidactism
self-education
self-learning
self-teaching
Education without the guidance of masters
(such as teachers and professors) or
institutions (such as schools).

Generally, an autodidact is an individual
who chooses the subject they will study,
their studying material, and the studying
rhythm and time.

An autodidact may or may not have formal
education, and their study may be either a
complement or an alternative to it.

Many notable contributions have been made
by autodidacts.

PSA
Public Service Announcement

sordid
Involving immoral or dishonourable actions
and motives; arousing moral distaste and
contempt.

subsume
Include or absorb (something) in something
else [from below].

Latin:
- sub
“from below,”
- sumere
“take.”

farrago
A confused mixture.

disenfranchise
Deprive (someone) of the right to vote.

whirring
(especially of a machine or a bird's
wings) make a low, continuous, regular
sound.

dissolution
The closing down or dismissal of an
assembly, partnership, or official body.

Example:
On one level, the liquid mirror is
just a manifestation of the
dissolution of the fake reality of the
Matrix.

quintessential
Representing the most perfect or typical
example of a quality or class.

satori
Sudden enlightenment.

Example:

garish
Obtrusively bright and showy; lurid.

pittance
A very small or inadequate amount of
money.

tumultuous

aught
Anything at all.

baptism of fire
a difficult introduction to a new job or activity.

antecedents
a thing that existed before or logically precedes another.

stoically
Without showing one's feelings or

opined
held and stated one's opinion.

opine
hold and state as one's opinion.

couture
The design and manufacture of fashionable
clothes to a client's specific
requirements and measurements.

contemptible
Deserving contempt; despicable.

"contemptible contraption"

smorgasbord
A range of open sandwiches and delicacies
served as hors d'oeuvres or a buffet.

deterge
Cleanse thoroughly.

reveller
A person who is enjoying themselves in a
lively and noisy way.

perfidious
deceitful and untrustworthy.

misestimation
oh babe can you please not tell mum what i
got u for ur bday to avoid hypothetical
present misestimation

Chamberlain
The officer in charge of managing the
household of a sovereign or other noble
figure.

vigor
physical strength and good health.
effort, energy, and enthusiasm.

micturition
the action of urinating.

stench
a strong and very unpleasant smell.

fetid
smelling extremely unpleasant.

Example:
fetid stench

chicanery
The use of trickery to achieve a
political, financial, or legal purpose.

Example
On Odysseus's return, disguised as an
old beggar, he finds that Penelope has
remained faithful.

She has devised tricks to delay her
suitors, one of which is to pretend to
be weaving a burial shroud for
Odysseus's elderly father Laertes and
claiming that she will choose a suitor
when she has finished.

Every night for three years, she
undoes part of the shroud, until
Melantho, one of twelve unfaithful
slave women, discovers her chicanery
and reveals it to the suitors.

elucidated
make (something) clear; explain.

prodigious
Remarkably or impressively great in
extent, size, or degree.

"present in prodigious numbers"

ablution
A ceremonial act of washing parts of the
body or sacred containers.

exsanguination
The action of draining a person, animal,
or organ of blood.

portent
A sign or warning that a momentous or
calamitous event is likely to happen.

cartharsis
The process of releasing, and thereby
providing relief from, strong or repressed
emotions.

incontrovertibly
not able to be denied or disputed.

"incontrovertible proof"

revivification
To impart new life, energy, or spirit to:
a new leader who revivified the movement;
a celebration that revivified our spirits.

[French revivifier, from Old French, to
come back to life, from Latin
*revīvificāre, to revivify : Latin re-,
re- + Latin vīvificāre, to vivify; see
vivify.] re. · viv′i.

frivolity
lack of seriousness; light-heartedness.

"a night of fun and frivolity"

festal
relating to or characteristic of a
celebration or festival.

"plum pudding was originally served on
festal days as a main course"

offal
variety meats
pluck
organ meats
The viscera and entrails of a butchered
animal.

pugnacious
eager or quick to argue, quarrel, or
fight.

"his public statements became increasingly
pugnacious"

malingerer
skulker
shammer
Someone shirking their duty by feigning
illness or incapacity.

extirpate
To pluck up by the stem or root; to root
figuratively; to destroy wholly; as, to
extirpate weeds; to extirpate a tumor; to
extirpate a sect; to extirpate error or
heresy.

imbecile
im· buh· seel

bodacious

proclivity
A tendency to choose or do something
regularly; an inclination or
predisposition towards a particular thing.

convolution
A thing that is complex and difficult to
follow.

A coil or twist.

* Confusing English
** precede vs proceed
** preceding vs proceeding

accost
Approach and address (someone) boldly or
aggressively.

solicited
Ask for or try to obtain (something) from
someone.

Accost someone and offer one's or someone
else's services as a prostitute.

crisis
A time of intense difficulty or danger.

A time when a difficult or important

The turning point of a disease when an
important change takes place, indicating
either recovery or death.

complicit
involved with others in an activity that
is unlawful or morally wrong.

mischaracterization
The act of characterizing something in an

folio
The term "folio", from the Latin folium
(leaf), has three interconnected but
distinct meanings in the world of books
and printing.

It is firstly a term for a common method
of arranging sheets of paper into book
form, folding the sheet only once, and a
term for a book made in this way.

Secondly, it is a general term for a
sheet, leaf or page in (especially)
manuscripts and old books, and thirdly, an
approximate term for the size of a book,
and for a book of this size.

perspicillum
Old word for telescope.

notion
impression, feeling, belief, notion, opinion

pancaea
cure-all
A solution or remedy for all difficulties
or diseases.

prefigured
imagine, conceive of, ideate, envisage

fanfare
A short ceremonial tune or flourish played
on brass instruments, typically to
introduce something or someone important.

Emacs has a fanfare message when it
starts.

survivability
The ability to remain alive or continue to
exist.

The term has more specific meaning in
certain contexts.

ecstatic
Feeling or expressing overwhelming
happiness or joyful excitement.

Involving an experience of mystic
self-transcendence.

OG
Original gangster
Slang term for someone who's incredibly
exceptional, authentic, or "old-school."

connote
To convey in addition to exact explicit
meaning.

Examples:
-   all the misery that poverty connotes
-   For her, the word "family" connotes
love and comfort.

promulgated
Promote or make widely known (an idea or
cause).

cavalier
Showing a lack of proper concern; offhand.

shoehorn

diametrically
(with reference to opposition) completely;
directly.

Example:
diametrically opposed.

salt plain
salt pan
salt flat
A flat area of ground covered with salt
and other minerals.

They are usually purely white.

They are found in desert areas.

incantation
A series of words said as a magic spell or
charm.

gusto
enjoyment and enthusiasm in doing
something.

Backporting
The action of taking parts from a newer
version of a software system or software
component and porting them to an older
version of the same software.

doting
Extremely and uncritically fond of

titular
Holding or constituting a purely formal
position or title without any real
authority.

Example:
Commander Keen

EAFP
Easier to ask for forgiveness than permission
Python has this as its coding style.

What this means is that it’s often easier
to just assume that something exists (like
a key in a dict) and catch an exception if
we’re wrong.

abstruse
Difficult to understand; obscure.

incarnation
An incarnate form; a personification; a
manifestation; a reduction to apparent
from; a striking exemplification in person
or act.

The best setup is a printed copy of this
paper, a web browser showing the online
library documentation and a running
incarnation of ghci...

TLC
tender loving care.
If someone or something needs some TLC,
they need to be treated in a kind and
caring way. TLC is an abbreviation for
'tender loving care.'

incursion
An invasion or attack, especially a sudden
or brief one.

harassing
The action of subjecting someone to
aggressive pressure or intimidation.

hydrophobic
hydrophobicity
The physical property of a molecule that
is seemingly repelled from a mass of
water.

In contrast, hydrophiles are attracted to
water.

Hydrophobic molecules tend to be nonpolar
and, thus, prefer other neutral molecules
and nonpolar solvents.

sardonic
If you describe someone as sardonic, you
mean their attitude to people or things is
humorous but rather critical.

Grimly mocking or cynical.
"Starkey attempted a sardonic smile"

Sardonic wit
When something is cutting but not
obviously cutting. Example- you are in a
relationship with someone who lies to you
a lot.

Example:
Sardonic Humor
"Anyhow, I hope your day is as pleasant as you are."

This means "fuck off".

privilege
A special right, advantage, or immunity
granted or available only to a particular
person or group.

sluggardliness

sluggard
A person who is habitually indolent.

conscientiousness
The quality of wishing to do one's work or
duty well and thoroughly.

obtuse
Annoyingly insensitive or slow to
understand.

SKU
stock keeping unit
A number assigned to a product by a retail
store to identify the price, product
options and manufacturer of the
merchandise.

A SKU is used to track inventory in your
retail store.

gratuitously
Without good reason; unjustifiably.

barbarism
Absence of culture and civilization.

epistemic
relating to knowledge or to the degree of
its validation.

anvil
[metalworking tool]

A large block of metal, with a flattened
top surface, upon which another object is
struck.

As massive as is practical, because the
higher their inertia, the more efficiently
they cause the energy of striking tools to
be transferred to the work piece.

curtailment
The action or fact of reducing or
restricting something.

Example:
curtailment of liberty

attrition
The action or process of gradually
reducing the strength or effectiveness of
someone or something through sustained
attack or pressure.

resigning
Perspectives:
An act of attrition against your team.

amenable
1. conformable
2. tractable / responsive
3. liable to answer to a higher authority

eli5
Explain like I'm 5.

grassroots movement
grassroots campaign
One which uses the people in a given
district, region, or community as the
basis for a political or economic
movement.

grisly
Causing horror or disgust.

incitement
The action of provoking unlawful behaviour
or urging someone to behave unlawfully.

marketable
Saleable.

Fit to be offered for sale in a market.

Posterior
Comes from the Latin word posterus,
meaning "coming after".

Posterior is often used as a technical
term in biology and medicine to refer to
the back side of things, and is the
opposite of anterior, which refers to the
front side.

Examples:
- posterior probability

Kakorrhaphiophobia
An abnormal, persistent, irrational fear
of failure.

In clinical cases, it's debilitating: the
fear of even the most subtle failure or
defeat is so intense that it restricts a
person from doing anything at all.

anachronism
A thing belonging or appropriate to a
period other than that in which it exists,
especially a thing that is conspicuously
old-fashioned.

https://practicaltypography.com/alternate-figures.html

totient function
The value of the totient function is the
the number of coprimes of (relative to) n
from 1 to n.

totative
The totatives of n are the numbers counted
when computing the value of the totient
function.

pariah
Outcast.

apartheid
A system of institutionalised racial
segregation that existed in South Africa
and South West Africa from 1948 until the
early 1990s

proceeds
Money obtained from an event or activity.

FMV
full motion video

communiqué
An official announcement or statement,
especially one made to the media.

Example:
"the country's foreign ministry issued
a communique"

charlatanism

angular momentum
mvr

https://youtu.be/_WHRWLnVm_M?t=226

conservation of angular momentum

diacritic
diacritical mark
diacritical point
diacritical sign
accent
A glyph added to a letter or basic glyph.

macron
[diacritic]

A diacritical mark: it is a straight bar
(¯) placed above a letter, usually a
vowel.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Letters_with_macron

grapheme
Ā, lowercase ā, is a grapheme, a Latin A
with a macron, used in several
orthographies.

conceptual encoding
The ability to interpret metaphors.

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=21239104

infotainment
soft news
A portmanteau of information and entertainment.

A type of media, usually television, that
provides a combination of information and
entertainment.

The term is usually used disapprovingly
against more serious hard news.

soul searching
Deep and anxious consideration of one's
emotions and motives or of the correctness
of a course of action.

insufferable
intolerable

anthology
A collection of literary works chosen by
the compiler; it may be a collection of
plays, poems, short stories, songs or
excerpts by different authors.

chrestomathy
A selection of passages from an author or
authors, designed to help in learning a
language.

Different from an anthology because of its
didactic purpose.

demarcate
demarcating
set the boundaries or limits of.
"plots of land demarcated by barbed wire"

separate or distinguish from.
"art was being demarcated from the more objective science"

putative
Generally considered or reputed to be.

pragmatics
[subfield of linguistics and semiotics]

Studies the ways in which context
contributes to meaning.

Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory,
conversational implicature, talk in
interaction and other approaches to
language behavior in philosophy,
sociology, linguistics and anthropology.

figure
[verb]

to be.
appear.

The question of the peace settlement is
likely to figure prominently in the talks.

The term cohesion does not figure in the
index of the book.

collocated
(of a word) be habitually juxtaposed with
another with a frequency greater than
chance.

predicate
Both a noun and a verb.

verb
To say (i.e. to predicate) something

Sounds like 'ate', not 'at'.

delineate
Describe or portray (something) precisely.

Writer's Block
When you can't think of what to write.
This happens all the time with me trying
to write emails.

nepotism
The practice among those with power or
influence of favoring relatives or
friends, especially by giving them jobs.

debauchery
Excessive indulgence in sex, alcohol, or
drugs.

laudable
(of an action, idea, or goal) deserving
praise and commendation.

crepuscular
Of, resembling, or relating to twilight.

tenebrous

portent
A sign or warning that a momentous or
calamitous event is likely to happen.

baleful
Threatening harm; menacing.

provisionally
Subject to further confirmation; for the
time being.

colophon
A publisher's emblem or imprint, usually
on the title page of a book.

upset
The case where an underdog wins.

underdog
Popularly expected to lose.

Opposite of top dog.

favorite
top dog

Opposite of underdog.

saucy
Sexually suggestive in a light-hearted and
humorous way.

subjective analysis
Where the feeling of the individual taking
part in the analysis process determines
the outcome.

Unusable.

Aside from being useless, subjective
analysis also fails.

Since analysis is used in news reporting,
use subjective analysis in these fields.

objective analysis
The opposite of subjective analysis.

Fact-based, measurable, and observable.

subjective information
subjective writing
Based on personal opinions,
interpretations, points of view, emotions
and judgement.

semaphore
Simply a variable.

This variable is used to solve critical
section problems and to achieve process
synchronization in the multi processing
environment.

A trivial semaphore is a plain variable
that is changed (for example, incremented
or decremented, or toggled) depending on
programmer-defined conditions.

intimation
An indication or hint.

Middleware
Multipurpose software that provides
services to applications outside of what's
offered by the operating system.

Any software between the kernel and user
apps can be middleware.

Ornithology
Branch of zoology that concerns the study
of birds.

Several aspects of ornithology differ from
related disciplines, due partly to the
high visibility and the aesthetic appeal
of birds.

[#jazz]
Charlie (Bird) Parker

mural
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or
applied directly on a wall, ceiling or
other permanent surfaces.

A distinguishing characteristic of mural
painting is that the architectural
elements of the given space are
harmoniously incorporated into the
picture.

inimical
Tending to obstruct or harm.

verisimilitude
The appearance of being true or real.

"the detail gives the novel some
verisimilitude"

Example
The verisimilitude is better than any
char-RNN output I’ve seen.

bimbo
An attractive but unintelligent or
frivolous young woman.

vapid
Offering nothing that is stimulating or
challenging; bland.

cerebral
If you are a cerebral person, no one would
ever call you a drama queen.

You make decisions using your intelligence
and cold, hard facts, instead of your
emotions.

The word cerebral gets its meaning from
cerebrum, which is Latin for brain.

Cerebral people use their brains instead
of their hearts.

torpid
Mentally or physically inactive;
lethargic.

asexual
Without sexual feelings or associations.

Asexual individuals may still experience
attraction but this attraction doesn't
need to be realized in any sexual manner.

inclusionism
The view that information should be
liberally added and retained on Wikipedia.

It is espoused by users called
inclusionists who favor keeping and
amending problematic articles over
deleting them.

espoused
Adopt or support (a cause, belief, or way
of life).

"she espoused the causes of justice and
freedom for all"

machination
A plot or scheme.

"Born of Chuck's machinations."

"secret machination"

volunteering
Generally considered an altruistic
activity where an individual or group
provides services for no financial or
social gain "to benefit another person,
group or organization".

"volunteer the information"

Example:
It is quite unusual to stay in a
relationship and then volunteer the
information that you don't love your
partner.

If a partner behaves in this strange
way, then it is likely giving him or
her some form of satisfaction.

verbiage
Speech or writing that uses too many words
or excessively technical expressions.

This guy is right, but his verbiage is
vehemently verbose.

meta
(of a creative work) referring to itself
or to the conventions of its genre; self-
referential.

Indicates a concept that is an abstraction
behind another concept, used to complete

Example:
In its simplest form, a book in which
a character is writing a book or a
movie in which a character is making a
movie can be described as meta.

Example:
"the enterprise is inherently ‘meta’,
since it doesn't review movies, for
example, it reviews the reviewers who
review movies"

Meta means about the thing itself.

It's seeing the thing from a higher
perspective instead of from within the
thing, like being self-aware.

chagrin
Annoyance or distress at having failed or
been humiliated.

"to my chagrin, he was nowhere to be seen"

inclusionism
https://www.gwern.net/In-Defense-Of-Inclusionism

deletionism

edn
extensible data notation
Pronounced "eed-n".

mauve
A pale purple color named after the mallow
flower.

antsy
agitated, impatient, or restless.

Dégustation
The careful, appreciative tasting of
various food, focusing on the gustatory
system, the senses, high culinary art and
good company.

Dégustation is more likely to involve
sampling small portions of all of a chef's
signature dishes in one sitting.

languish
(of a person or other living thing) lose
or lack vitality; grow weak or feeble.

anatidaephobia
A person suffering from this condition
feels that somewhere in the world, a duck
or a goose is watching him/her (not
attacking or touching, simply watching the
individual).

Not a real phobia.

kleptomaniac
Someone with an irrational urge to steal
in the absence of an economic motive.

lull
[noun]
Often used in relation to a storm, but the
term has a broader meaning as well.

The lull before the storm.

[verb]
Calm or send to sleep, typically with
soothing sounds or movements.

Bulletin Board System
BBS
A computer or an application dedicated to
the sharing or exchange of messages or
other files on a network.

Originally an electronic version of the
type of bulletin board found on the wall
in many kitchens and work places, the BBS
was used to post simple messages between
users.

supplicant
A fervently religious person who prays to
God for help with a problem, and it can
also be someone who begs earnestly for
something he or she wants.

A younger brother entreating his sister to
be allowed in her tree house could be
described as a supplicant.

Example:
WPA Supplicant -- for the wifi

WPA Supplicant
wpa_supplicant
[tool]

Configures network interfaces and connect
to wireless networks.

It is intended to run as a daemon and
other command to connect it.

A basic configuration is as follows.

On the first line GROUP=wheel allows any
user in the wheel group to connect to an
manage wireless connections.

amble
To walk slowly or leisurely; stroll.
An unhurried or leisurely walk.

ambler
A person who is ambling or who ambles.

negativism
The practice of being or tendency to be
negative or skeptical in attitude while
failing to offer positive suggestions or
views.

Data Fabric
[buzzword]

An architecture and set of data services
that provide consistent capabilities
across a choice of endpoints spanning on-
premises and multiple cloud environments.

Data Fabric simplifies and integrates data
management across cloud and on-premises to
accelerate digital transformation.

rebuttal
An instance of rebutting evidence or an
accusation.

chuse
Archaic spelling of CHOOSE

https://github.com/JesseKPhillips/USA-Constitution/blob/master/Constitution.md

causality
The relationship between cause and effect.

Simple connections between cause and
effect are linear and unidirectional.

spatiotemporal
Belonging to both space and time or to
space-time.

vim +/"spatiotemporal chaos" https://www.quantamagazine.org/machine-learnings-amazing-ability-to-predict-chaos-20180418/?fbclid=IwAR38PMiJeXGRq36IPhKcZbb5mjt6F1bKzKrwHIhTwCGQW2vLVZGG7Zos6TI

pusillanimous
Showing a lack of courage or
determination; timid.

pejorative
Expressing contempt or disapproval.

incensed
Very angry; enraged.

hapless
(especially of a person) unfortunate.

gambit
A device, action, or opening remark,
typically one entailing a degree of risk,
that is calculated to gain an advantage.

platitudes
A remark or statement, especially one with
a moral content, that has been used too
often to be interesting or thoughtful.

Example:
"shallow platitude"
"You'll do amazing."

phatic
Denoting or relating to language used for
general purposes of social interaction,
rather than to convey information or ask
questions. Utterances such as hello, how
are you? and nice morning, isn't it? are
phatic.

Example:
"phatic statement of good intentions."

conceited
Excessively proud of oneself; vain.

sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where
the two sexes of the same species exhibit
different characteristics beyond the
differences in their sexual organs.

The condition occurs in many animals and
some plants.

proselytising
Convert or attempt to convert (someone)
from one religion, belief, or opinion to
another.

syllogism
[type of logical argument]

Applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a
conclusion based on two or more
propositions that are asserted or assumed
to be true.

gregarious
(of a person) fond of company; sociable.

fiefdom
fief
A person's sphere of operation or control.

Example:
https://www.stilldrinking.org/take-better-screenshots

nootropic
Drugs, supplements, and other substances
that may improve cognitive function,
particularly executive functions, memory,
creativity, or motivation, in healthy
individuals.

swooned
faint, especially from extreme emotion.

other strong emotion.

unbeknown
without the knowledge of (someone).
"unbeknown to me, she made some enquiries"

levity
The treatment of a serious matter with
humour or lack of due respect.

facetious
Treating serious issues with deliberately
inappropriate humor; flippant.

levity vs facetious
https://wikidiff.com/levity/facetious

precocious
(of a child) having developed certain
abilities or inclinations at an earlier
age than is usual or expected.

commend
Praise formally or officially.

intercede
Intervene on behalf of another.

Intercession
intercessory prayer
The act of praying to a deity on behalf of
others.

In Western Christianity, intercession
forms a distinct form of prayer, alongside

palantir
A magical artifact from J. R. R. Tolkien's
fantasy legendarium.

A palantír is a crystal ball, used for
both communication and as a means of
seeing events in other parts of the world.

feature complete
Denoting a version of a piece of software
having all the functionality intended for
the final version but requiring some
improvements and fixes before release.

bigot
A person who is intolerant toward those
holding different opinions.

A person who is intolerant of opinions,
lifestyles, or identities that are
different from his or her own.

Mostly, the person's opinions are based on
prejudice.

Obstinate or unreasonable attachment to a
belief, opinion, or faction; in
particular, prejudice against a person or
people on the basis of their membership of
a particular group.

"the difficulties of combating prejudice
and bigotry"

boisterous
noisy, energetic, and cheerful.

buffoonery
Behaviour that is ridiculous but amusing.

buffoon
A ridiculous but amusing person; a clown.

informant
informer
A person who provides privileged
information about a person or organization
to an agency.

monomyth
the hero's journey
[narratology]
[comparative mythology]

The common template of a broad category of
tales and lore that involves a hero who
goes on an adventure, and in a decisive
crisis wins a victory, and then comes home
changed or transformed.

tenure
Give (someone) a permanent post,
especially as a teacher or lecturer.

Tenure is a category of academic
appointment existing in some countries.

A tenured post is an indefinite academic
appointment that can be terminated only
for cause or under extraordinary
circumstances, such as financial exigency
or program discontinuation.

singe
Burn (something) superficially or lightly.

mineral
A solid chemical compound that occurs
naturally in pure form.

Minerals are most commonly associated with
rocks due to the presence of minerals
within rocks.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_minerals_(complete)

Gold is a mineral.

sophistry
The use of clever but false arguments,
especially with the intention of
deceiving.

"trying to argue that I had benefited in
any way from the disaster was pure
sophistry"

Sophist
A sophist was a specific kind of teacher
in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth
centuries BCE.

Many sophists specialized in using the
tools of philosophy and rhetoric, though
other sophists taught subjects such as
music, athletics, and mathematics.

fallacious
Based on a mistaken belief.

qualms
An uneasy feeling of doubt, worry, or
fear, especially about one's own conduct;
a misgiving.

reductionist
A person who analyzes and describes a
complex phenomenon in terms of its simple
or fundamental constituents.

trope
A figurative or metaphorical use of a word
or expression.

nuance
A subtle difference in or shade of
meaning, expression, or sound.

codex
codexes
codices
An ancient manuscript text in book form.
"the great legal compilation known as the
Codex Euricianus"

An official list of medicines, chemicals,
etc.

renounce
Formally declare one's abandonment of (a
claim, right, or possession).

frigid
Very cold in temperature.

desiccated
Having had all moisture removed; dried
out.

congenial
(of a person) pleasant because of a
personality, qualities, or interests that
are similar to one's own.

belligerent
Hostile and aggressive.

An individual, group, country, or other
entity that acts in a hostile manner, such
as engaging in combat.

Belligerent comes from Latin, literally
meaning "one who wages war".

vacuous
Having or showing a lack of thought or
intelligence; mindless.

"vacuous nonsense"

canonicalization
canonicalized
The process of converting data that
involves more than one representation into
a standard approved format.

Such a conversion ensures that data
conforms to canonical rules.

Warn or reprimand someone firmly.

coercive
Relating to or using force or threats.

begets
(typically of a man, sometimes of a man
and a woman) bring (a child) into
existence by the process of reproduction.

anthropomorphization
To attribute human form or personality to
things not human.

burgeoning
Begin to grow or increase rapidly;
flourish.

gratification
Pleasure, especially when gained from the
satisfaction of a desire.

waive
Refrain from insisting on or using (a
right or claim).

anodyne
Not likely to provoke dissent or offense;
inoffensive, often deliberately so.

Example:
Suppose my ambition is to learn a
musical instrument.

This seems pretty anodyne — although
of course, not everyone who possesses
this ambition will be lucky enough to
be able to fulfill it.

pyrophoric
Liable to ignite spontaneously on exposure
to air.

decorum
behaviour in keeping with good taste and
propriety.

"he had acted with the utmost decorum"

spaulders
Pieces of armour in a harness of plate
armour.

Typically, they are a single plate of
steel or iron covering the shoulder with
bands (lames) joined by straps of leather
or rivets.

pauldron
A component of plate armor which evolved
from spaulders in the 15th century.

As with spaulders, pauldrons cover the
shoulder area.

foundling
An infant that has been abandoned by its
parents and is discovered and cared for by
others.

pawn
A person or thing manipulated and used by
others, or a game piece in the game of
chess.

A person unwittingly used in a scheme and
taken advantage of by others is an example
of a pawn.

A chess piece that has the least value to
the player is an example of a pawn.

restitution
The restoration of something lost or
stolen to its proper owner.

"the ANC had demanded the restitution of
land seized from blacks"

allusion
An expression designed to call something
to mind without mentioning it explicitly;
an indirect or passing reference.

Allusion is a figure of speech, in which
an object or circumstance from unrelated
context is referred to covertly or
indirectly.

It is left to the audience to make the
direct connection.

Where the connection is directly and
explicitly stated by the author, it is

extended metaphor
An extended metaphor, also known as a
conceit or sustained metaphor, is an
author’s exploitation of a single metaphor
or analogy at length through multiple
throughout a poem or story.

warmonger
A person who encourages or advocates
aggression towards other countries or
groups.

despairing
Showing the loss of all hope.

torrid
Very hot and dry.

bikeshedding
Spending disproportionate time and energy
spent over an insignificant or unimportant
detail of a larger concern.

The term comes from an illustrative
anecdote of a committee discussing a plan
to build a nuclear power plant.

bona fied
Genuine.

Latin:
in good faith

Fovea
In the eye, a tiny pit located in the
macula of the retina that provides the
clearest vision of all.

Only in the fovea are the layers of the
retina spread aside to let light fall
directly on the cones, the cells that give
the sharpest image.

Also called the central fovea or fovea
centralis.

conflate
Combine (two or more texts, ideas, etc.)
into one.

irrefutable
Impossible to deny or disprove.

intercalate
Interpolate (an intercalary period) in a
calendar.

v +/"intercalate" "$HOME/blog/posts/haskell-functions.org" strict Demanding that rules concerning behaviour are obeyed and observed. smh shaking my head Typically used when something is obvious, plain old stupid, or disappointment. formulation A material or mixture prepared according to a formula. The action of creating or preparing something. elucidate Make (something) clear; explain. exposition Writing or speech primarily intended to convey information or to explain; a detailed statement or explanation; explanatory treatise. boisterous Noisy, energetic, and cheerful. caveat A warning or proviso of specific stipulations, conditions, or limitations. NGS Next generation sequencing Massively parallel or deep sequencing are related terms that describe a DNA sequencing technology which has revolutionised genomic research. Using NGS an entire human genome can be sequenced within a single day. https://github.com/ngless-toolkit/ngless https://ngless.embl.de anisotropy The property of substances to exhibit variations in physical properties along different molecular axes. It is seen in crystals, liquid crystals and, less commonly, in liquids. galling Causing annoyance or resentment; annoying. solipsistic A theory holding that the self can know nothing but its own modifications and that the self is the only existent thing also : extreme egocentrism. Only one's mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological position, solipsism holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure; the external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist outside the mind. deterrent A thing that discourages or is intended to discourage someone from doing something. Deterrence theory The idea that an inferior force, by virtue of the destructive power of the force's weapons, could deter a more powerful adversary, provided that this force could be protected against destruction by a surprise attack. ingenuous Innocent and unsuspecting. unscrupulous Having or showing no moral principles; not honest or fair. ignoble Not honourable in character or purpose. candor candour The quality of being open and honest; frankness. shibboleth A custom, principle, or belief distinguishing a particular class or group of people, especially a long-standing one regarded as outmoded or no longer important. contrivance The use of skill to create or bring about something, especially with a consequent effect of artificiality. trifle Treat without seriousness or respect. frivolously Characterized by lack of seriousness or sense. detestable Deserving intense dislike. interception The action or fact of preventing someone or something from continuing to a destination. rescind Revoke, cancel, or repeal (a law, order, or agreement). quantity with the dimensions of 1 dimensionless quantity A quantity without any physical units and thus a pure number. Such a number is typically defined as a product or ratio of quantities which do have units, in such a way that all the units cancel out. prejudice Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience. discrimination The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex. prerogative An exclusive right or privilege held by a person or group, especially a hereditary or official right. An exclusive right bestowed by a government or state and invested in an individual or group, the content of which is separate from the body of rights enjoyed under the general law. It was a common facet of feudal law. underbelly Underbelly is the side of something that is not normally seen. Figuratively, it means a vulnerable or weak part, similar to the term Achilles' heel, or alternatively, a hidden, illicit side of society. incumbent Necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility. prevailing Existing at a particular time; current. Having most appeal or influence; prevalent. jeopardise Put (someone or something) into a situation in which there is a danger of loss, harm, or failure. making book To gamble, either by placing or taking bets. To be very confident. cathexis the process of investing mental, emotional, or libidinal energy or significance in an object, person, or idea. switcheroo A sudden unexpected variation or reversal, often for a humorous purpose. It is colloquially used in reference to an act of intentionally or unintentionally swapping two objects. apprehensive Anxious or fearful that something bad or unpleasant will happen. edification The moral or intellectual instruction or improvement of someone. unlettered (of a person) poorly educated or illiterate. analogon analogue Example: This program is the analogon of libfuse's hello.c, a program that exposes a single file "file.txt" in the root directory. analogate An instance of a thing represented in general by the analogon. For example, given the analogon "famous musician", the analogates might include Mozart and Liszt. adrenalized Affected with adrenaline. Excited, charged, or tense. shunt Push or pull (a train or part of a train) from the main line to a siding or from one line of rails to another. In medicine, a shunt is a hole or a small passage which moves, or allows movement of, fluid from one part of the body to another. The term may describe either congenital or acquired shunts; and acquired shunts may be either biological or mechanical. congenital (of a person) having a particular trait from birth or by firmly established habit. numinous Having a strong religious or spiritual quality; indicating or suggesting the presence of a divinity. instill Gradually but firmly establish (an idea or attitude, especially a desirable one) in a person's mind. Auxiliary Providing supplementary or additional help and support. cognate Allied by blood; kindred by birth; specifically (Law), related on the mother's side. Of the same or a similar nature; of the same family; proceeding from the same stock or root; allied; kindred; as, a cognate language. perverse Contrary to the accepted or expected standard or practice. Showing a deliberate and obstinate desire to behave in a way that is unreasonable or unacceptable. Example: The poorest people end up paying the most; it's quite perverse. intercalation embolism intercalary days (related term) [timekeeping] The insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendars may require intercalations of both days and months. furlough From Dutch: verlof, "leave of absence". In the United States, a furlough is a temporary leave of employees due to special needs of a company or employer, which may be due to economic conditions at the specific employer or in the economy as a whole. burgeoning Begin to grow or increase rapidly; flourish. dagger obelisk obelus † A typographical symbol that usually indicates a footnote if an asterisk has already been used. managerialism Belief in or reliance on the use of professional managers in administering or planning an activity. syndicate (verb) wu syndicate 3. syndicate -- (sell articles, television programs, or photos to several publications or independent broadcasting stations) Example: In my journey writing my blog, sometimes I syndicate my posts to other websites. One of them is CodeProject. What they require is just to submit my RSS feed and put a special link tag. Then they’ll pull my posts that have this special tag. visage A person's face, with reference to the form or proportions of the features. The manifestation, image, or aspect of something. vestige A trace or remnant of something that is disappearing or no longer exists. A part or organ of an organism which has become reduced or functionless in the course of evolution. vertical AI Designed in performing one specific task i.e. arrange a meeting or a call of the consumer along with the human employee. droll Curious or unusual in a way that provokes dry amusement. acquitted Free (someone) from a criminal charge by a verdict of not guilty. parodic Being or resembling a parody. tachyon A tachyon or tachyonic particle is a hypothetical particle that always travels faster than light. Most physicists believe that faster-than- light particles cannot exist because they are not consistent with the known laws of physics. Tachypsychia A neurological condition that alters the perception of time, usually induced by physical exertion, drug use, or a traumatic event. For someone affected by tachypsychia, time perceived by the individual either lengthens, making events appear to slow down, or contracts, objects appearing as moving in a speeding blur. arboreal (chiefly of animals) living in trees. Doppler effect The Doppler effect is the change in frequency of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source. It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described the phenomenon in 1842. burly (of a person) large and strong; heavily built. salve A salve is a medical ointment used to soothe the surface of the body. ragamuffin A person, typically a child, in ragged, dirty clothes. indentured servitude An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract to work for a particular employer for a fixed time. The contract often lets the employer sell the labor of an indenturee to a third party. apothecary A person who prepared and sold medicines and drugs. security detail PSD PPD A protective team assigned to protect the personal security of an individual or group. PSDs can be made up of military personnel, private security contractors, or law enforcement agents. judicious Having, showing, or done with good judgment or sense. Example: With judicious use of... scapegoat A person who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others, especially for reasons of expediency. expidency The quality of being convenient and practical despite possibly being improper or immoral; convenience. new-found new found newfound newly found Recently discovered or established. doozie Something outstanding or unique of its kind. Example: Isabell went above and beyond today to source a UK House of Commons Christmas Jumper. It’s my first Christmas Jumper and what a doozie to start with! poster child A person or thing that epitomizes or represents a specified quality, cause, etc. Originally referred to a child afflicted by some disease or deformity whose picture is used on posters or other media as part of a campaign to raise money or enlist volunteers for a cause or organization. remand Place (a defendant) on bail or in custody, especially when a trial is adjourned. clause A unit of grammatical organization next below the sentence in rank and in traditional grammar said to consist of a subject and predicate. spelunk spelunking To explore natural caves. Geologists do a lot of spelunking. Scientists who study natural formations of the Earth do a lot of spelunking. The recreational pastime of exploring wild cave systems. The exploration of caves, especially as a hobby. speleology The scientific study of caves and the cave environment. salient Most noticeable or important. Example: “Frankly we don’t currently have a strong reputation for building privacy protective services,” Zuckerberg writes. But Facebook’s reputation is not the salient question: its business model is. double black diamond The symbol used to designate very advanced ski trails. Its level of difficulty is rated as expert. Only very advanced skiers should consider trying it. benefactor A person who gives some form of help to benefit a person, group or organization, often gifting a monetary contribution in the form of an endowment to help a cause. elope Run away secretly in order to get married, especially without parental consent. tenacity The quality or fact of being able to grip something firmly; grip. abject (of something bad) experienced or present to the maximum degree. "his letter plunged her into abject misery" (of a person or their behaviour) completely without pride or dignity; self-abasing. manservant A male servant. Lackey lacquey In its original definition, is a uniformed manservant. The modern connotation of "servile follower" appeared later, in 1588. detritus Waste or debris of any kind. His Dark Materials The Golden Compass [trilogy of fantasy novels] alethiometer golden compass [#The Golden Compass] A fictional object. Allows those who are highly trained (or gifted) to know the answer to any question. parachronism [anachronism] Assignment of a date that is too late. prochronism [anachronism] Assignment of a date that is too early. oubliette A secret dungeon with access only through a trapdoor in its ceiling. illustrious Well known, respected, and admired for past achievements. conceited Excessively proud of oneself; vain. conceit [#modern literary criticism] More common with genre fiction, conceit often means an extended rhetorical device, summed up in a short phrase, that refers to a situation which either does not exist, or exists rarely, but is needed for the plot. balmy (of the weather) pleasantly warm. cahoots Colluding or conspiring together secretly. garish Obtrusively bright and showy. Unpleasantly bright. Showy or too brightly colored. Lurid. lurid Unpleasantly bright in colour, especially so as to create a harsh or unnatural effect. doggedly In a manner that shows tenacity and grim persistence. Rio Scale Nearly everyone is familiar with the Richter Scale for quantifying earthquake severity. Can we similarly quantify the importance of a candidate SETI signal? The Rio Scale is an attempt to do just that. It is an ordinal scale between zero and ten, used to quantify the impact of any public announcement regarding evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence. enchanté Nice to meet you, enchanted, delighted. carcass The dead body of an animal. precession Example: It's a bit like a spinning top that starts to wobble as it's slowing down, the researchers said. This change in the rotational axis of a spinning body is called precession. ostensibly As appears or is stated to be true, though not necessarily so; apparently. "ostensibly going insane". humblebrag An ostensibly modest or self-deprecating statement whose actual purpose is to draw attention to something of which one is proud. dyad Something that consists of two elements or parts. diad A sequence of two (different) monomers in a polymer. erratic Not even or regular in pattern or movement; unpredictable. serendipity The occurrence and development of events by chance in a happy or beneficial way. austerity Sternness or severity of manner or attitude. wire harness cable harness wiring harness cable assembly wiring assembly wiring loom An assembly of electrical cables or wires which transmit signals or electrical power. Semmle Inc [code analysis platform provider] Built on research in compilers and data analysis, developed by a team from the University of Oxford, its patented technology creates a KB using all available data about the software development process (source code, issue tickets, development costs, team location, etc.), and allows its users to accurately and efficiently query that KB. Root cause analysis An approach for identifying the underlying causes of an incident so that the most effective solutions can be identified and implemented. It's typically used when something goes badly, but can also be used when something goes well. Functionally extinct Functional extinction The extinction of a species or other taxon such that: It disappears from the fossil record, or historic reports of its existence cease; The reduced population no longer plays a significant role in ecosystem function; or. The population is no longer viable. top brass the top brass Exampel: The (company) top brass have/has decided that no action is necessary. Psycholinguistic Modeling The study of the interrelation between linguistic factors and psychological aspects. lynchpin A person or thing vital to an enterprise or organization. A pin passed through the end of an axle to keep a wheel in position. Example: "nurses are the linchpin of the National Health Service" expedite Make (an action or process) happen sooner or be accomplished more quickly. narcissist A person who has an excessive interest in or admiration of themselves. partly partially To some extent; not completely. Partly and partially are almost interchangeable. ontology The branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being. A set of concepts and categories in a subject area or domain that shows their properties and the relations between them. "what's new about our ontology is that it is created automatically from large datasets" pro bono Denoting work undertaken without charge, especially legal work for a client on low income. "the attorneys are representing him pro bono" deliberation Long and careful consideration or discussion. mitigation The action of reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something. goaded Provoke or annoy (someone) so as to stimulate some action or reaction. instructive Useful and informative. Example: - instructive question smutty (of talk, writing, or pictures) obscene or lascivious. victimization The action of singling someone out for cruel or unjust treatment. grievance A real or imagined cause for complaint, especially unfair treatment. paraphernalia Miscellaneous articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity. tenements A room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments. demarcate Set the boundaries or limits of. separate or distinguish from. Cognitive dissonance [#psychology] Occurs when a person holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values, or participates in an action that goes against one of these three, and experiences psychological stress because of that. Skeuomorphism The design concept of making items represented resemble their real-world counterparts. Skeuomorphism is commonly used in many design fields, including user interface (UI) and Web design, architecture, ceramics and interior design. pedant A person who is excessively concerned with minor details and rules or with displaying academic learning. splog Spam blog auto blog neologism splog A blog which the author uses to promote affiliated websites, to increase the search engine rankings of associated sites or to simply sell links/ads. commotion A state of confused and noisy disturbance. admonition A firm warning or reprimand. reprimand A formal expression of disapproval. neologism A newly coined word or expression. excerpt A short extract from a film, broadcast, or piece of music or writing. alluvial Loose, unconsolidated soil or sediment that has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. Camber angle camber The angle made by the wheels of a vehicle; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheels used for steering and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear. It is used in the design of steering and suspension. beatnik A young person in the 1950s and early 1960s belonging to a subculture associated with the beat generation. carte blanche Unconditional authority; full discretionary power. Aqua Regia royal water A mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Disolves gold. fatalist A philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to destiny. Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas: The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do. mar marred marring Impair the quality or appearance of; spoil. holistic view Relating to or concerned with wholes or with complete systems rather than with the analysis of, treatment of, or dissection into parts. geosynchronous geostationary Most communications satellites today are what are known as geosynchronous or geostationary, which is to say that they orbit the same axis around which the Earth rotates daily, and they are situated at an altitude that permits their orbital period to be equal to the time it takes for Earth to perform a full rotation, as it does each 86,164 seconds. This has the neat side effect of the satellite appearing perfectly motionless, simply hanging at a single point in the sky when viewed from the surface of the Earth, which is quite convenient for aiming antennas at them. ostentatious Characterized by pretentious or showy display; designed to impress. glut An excessively abundant supply of something. sprawling Spreading out over a large area in an untidy or irregular way. lexical Of or relating to words ERP enterprise resource planning SAP Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung System Analysis and Program Development [ERP software] https://retool.com/blog/erp-for-engineers/ Where companies store their core operational data. - sales projections, - purchase orders, and - inventory, - as well as the processes that act upon that data (e.g. paying out vendors when a purchase order is issued). In a sense, ERP is the “brain” of a company — it stores all important pieces of data and all of the actions possible in data-driven workflows. tired In need of sleep or rest; weary. judiciously With good judgement or sense. mitigate Make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful. "drainage schemes have helped to mitigate this problem" unmitigated Absolute; unqualified. "the tour had been an unmitigated disaster" Mesopotamia Mesopotamian A historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders. photogenic (especially of a person) looking attractive in photographs or on film. fastidiously Excessively particular, critical, or demanding; hard to please: a fastidious eater. requiring or characterized by excessive care or delicacy; painstaking. scrutinous Disposed to examine closely : inquisitve , searching. confounded Cause surprise or confusion in (someone), especially by acting against their expectations. "confounded relatives" sinecure A position requiring little or no work but giving the holder status or financial benefit. trinket A small ornament or item of jewellery that is of little value. yonder At some distance in the direction indicated; over there. kinda <informal speech> Kind of. sorta <informal speech> Sort of. mandela effect Occurs when a large mass of people believes that an event occurred when it did not. prophylactic Intended to prevent disease. beyond reckoning Outside the bounds of calculation. reckoning The action or process of calculating or estimating something. misconduct Wrongful, improper, or unlawful conduct motivated by premeditated or intentional purpose or by obstinate indifference to the consequences of one's acts. Misconduct can be considered an unacceptable or improper behavior, especially for a professional person. reacquire Acquire (something) again. promethean Having a life-giving quality; inspiring. simulink MATLAB-based graphical programming environment for modeling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamical systems. Its primary interface is a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. miffed Somewhat annoyed; peeved. requisition An official order laying claim to the use of property or materials. auxiliary Conferring aid or help; helping; aiding; assisting; revolt To break away from or rise against constituted authority, as by open rebellion; cast off allegiance or subjection to those in authority; rebel; mutiny: to revolt against the present government. to turn away in mental rebellion, utter disgust, or abhorrence (usually followed by from) : He revolts from eating meat. conferred Grant or bestow (a title, degree, benefit, or right). The advantages conferred by RPL in cases 1 and 2 derive from the RPL syntax and expressive power. folly Lack of good sense; foolishness. viscerally Nn a manner that affects the viscera or gut. The soldier was wounded viscerally and was expected to die of gangrene. In a visceral manner; in a way that affects one's inner core or produces overwhelming emotions. quintessence The most perfect or typical example of a quality or class. Hausdorff dimension fractal dimension A measure of roughness and/or chaos that was first introduced in 1918 by mathematician Felix Hausdorff. For instance, the Hausdorff dimension of a single point is zero, of a line segment is 1, of a square is 2, and of a cube is 3. That is, for sets of points that define a smooth shape or a shape that has a small number of corners—the shapes of traditional geometry and science—the Hausdorff dimension is an integer agreeing with the usual sense of dimension, also known as the topological dimension. However, formulas have also been developed that allow calculation of the dimension of other less simple objects, where, solely on the basis of their properties of scaling and self-similarity, one is led to the conclusion that particular objects—including fractals—have non- integer Hausdorff dimensions. Because of the significant technical advances made by Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch allowing computation of dimensions for highly irregular or "rough" sets, this dimension is also commonly referred to as the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. artisan A worker in a skilled trade, especially one that involves making things by hand. Gasket A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression. Gaskets allow for "less-than-perfect" mating surfaces on machine parts where they can fill irregularities. ophthalmologist A specialist in the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders and diseases of the eye. shoehorned Force into an inadequate space. donga A transportable building with single rooms, often used on remote work sites or as tourist accommodation. impasse A situation in which no progress is possible, especially because of disagreement; a deadlock. provenance The place of origin or earliest known history of something. Emacs has provenance -- that's a big reason why I choose to use it. The provenance of a piece of data is the process that led to that piece of data From the French provenir, 'to come from/forth'. The chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object. Originally mostly used in relation to works of art but is now used in similar senses in a wide range of fields, including archaeology, paleontology, archives, manuscripts, printed books, the circular economy, and science and computing. The primary purpose of tracing the provenance of an object or entity is normally to provide contextual and circumstantial evidence for its original production or discovery, by establishing, as far as practicable, its later history, especially the sequences of its formal ownership, custody and places of storage. The practice has a particular value in helping authenticate objects. close of business COB Often used to describe a deadline or time. For example, a co-worker may send you an e-mail saying they need to have work done by COB. thespian Relating to drama and the theatre. castigated reprimand (someone) severely. Jesus music A style of Christian music that originated on the West Coast of the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This musical genre developed in parallel to the Jesus movement. It outlasted the movement that spawned it and the Christian music industry began to eclipse it and absorb its musicians around 1975. denizens An inhabitant or occupant of a particular place. prefecture A district under the government of a prefect. air embolism gas embolism A blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system. Air embolisms may also occur in the xylem of vascular plants, especially when suffering from water stress. tout Attempt to sell (something), typically by pestering people in an aggressive or bold manner. prescribe (of a medical practitioner) advise and authorize the use of (a medicine or treatment) for someone, especially in writing. proscribe Forbid, especially by law. PLC Programmable logic controller Programmable controller An industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability, ease of programming and process fault diagnosis. PLCs can range from small modular devices with tens of inputs and outputs (I/O), in a housing integral with the processor, to large rack-mounted modular devices with a count of thousands of I/O, and which are often networked to other PLC and SCADA systems. slewing [elecronics] The response of an electronic device to a sudden large increase in input, especially one that causes the device to respond at its maximum rate. "The radio is still slewing (adjusting to max position) from Jonty's abrupt turn of the dial." [mechanics] The rotation of an object around an axis, usually the z axis. An example is a radar scanning 360 degrees by slewing around the z axis. This is also common terminology in astronomy. The process of rotating a telescope to observe a different region of the sky is referred to as slewing. pep energy and high spirits; liveliness. "he was an enthusiastic player, full of pep" variability The quality or state of being variable; variableness. regal Of, resembling, or fit for a monarch, especially in being magnificent or dignified. convalescent convalescents A person who is recovering after an illness or operation. denunciation Public condemnation of someone or something. vagabond A person who wanders from place to place without a home or job. therapeutic Relating to the healing of disease. fiscal Relating to government revenue, especially taxes. impels Drive, force, or urge (someone) to do something. parishioner An inhabitant of a particular church parish, especially one who is a regular churchgoer. sound bite soundbite A short clip of speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio, often used to promote or exemplify the full length piece. monumental Great in importance, extent, or size. accolade An award or privilege granted as a special honour or as an acknowledgement of merit. perdition (in Christian theology) a state of eternal punishment and damnation into which a sinful and unpenitent person passes after death. anaemic Suffering from anaemia. A condition in which the blood doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells. cultivated Refined and well educated. idiosyncratic Relating to idiosyncrasy; peculiar or individual. disastrous Causing great damage. corroberation Evidence which confirms or supports a statement, theory, or finding; confirmation. bestiary bestiarum vocabulum Acompendium of beasts. Originating in the ancient world, bestiaries were made popular in the Middle Ages in illustrated volumes that described various animals and even rocks. The natural history and illustration of each beast was usually accompanied by a moral lesson. capricious Given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behaviour. irrevocably In a way that cannot be changed, reversed, or recovered. impedance The effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current, arising from the combined effects of ohmic resistance and reactance. shoot the breeze shoot the bull [#american informal] Have a casual conversation. novocaine procaine [#dentistry] A local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is used primarily to reduce the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin, and it is also used in dentistry. Owing to the ubiquity of the trade name Novocain, in some regions, procaine is referred to generically as novocaine. i18n Internationalization I - eighteen letters -N Is the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be adapted to specific local languages and cultures, a process called localization. exuberant Full of energy, excitement, and cheerfulness. catastrophe impertinence Lack of respect; rudeness. Rudeness A display of disrespect by not complying with the social norms or etiquette of a group or culture. These norms have been established as the essential boundaries of normally accepted behavior. invocation invoking The action of invoking someone or something. Yes one uses a 'c', the other 'k'. Zygosity The degree to which both copies of a chromosome or gene have the same genetic sequence. In other words, it is the degree of similarity of the alleles in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Heterozygosity inbreeding coefficient Veneration veneration of saints The act of honoring a saint, a person who has been identified as having a high degree of sanctity or holiness. Angels are shown similar veneration in many religions. Reverence [Emotion] A feeling or attitude of deep respect tinged with awe; veneration. The word "reverence" in the modern day is often used in relationship with religion. This is because religion often stimulates the emotion through recognition of God, the supernatural, and the ineffable. reverential Of the nature of, due to, or characterized by reverence. awe A feeling of reverential respect mixed with fear or wonder. dirge A lament for the dead, especially one forming part of a funeral rite. inasmuch To the extent that; in so far as. tetrarch (in the Roman Empire) the governor of one of four divisions of a country or province. Arable Arable land (of land) used or suitable for growing crops. furlough A furlough is a temporary leave of employees due to special needs of a company or employer, which may be due to economic conditions at the specific employer or in the economy as a whole. heckling heckler A heckler is a person who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or gibes. Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent of disturbing performers and/or participants. concision Using only the words necessary to convey an idea. It aims to enhance communication by eliminating redundancy without omitting important information. Concision has been described as one of the elementary principles of writing. The related concept of succinctness is the opposite of verbosity. generality A statement or principle having general rather than specific validity or force. dorsal Of, on, or relating to the upper side or back of an animal, plant, or organ. scandalous Causing general public outrage by a perceived offence against morality or law. cachier plucky Having or showing determined courage in the face of difficulties. Warez Pirated software distributed via the Internet. recursive backtracking Backtracking A general algorithm for finding all solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons a candidate as soon as it determines that the candidate cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution. Backtracking is an algorithmic-technique for solving problems recursively by trying to build a solution incrementally, one piece at a time, removing those solutions that fail to satisfy the constraints of the problem at any point of time (by time, here, is referred to the time elapsed till reaching any level of the search tree). brisk walk commemorate commemorated by Recall and show respect for (someone or something). bookish (of a person or way of life) devoted to reading and studying. receivership A company goes into receivership when an independent and suitably qualified person (the receiver) is appointed by a secured creditor, or in special circumstances by the court, to take control of some or all bamboozle cheat or fool. aforementioned Denoting a thing or person previously mentioned. comiserating Express or feel sympathy or pity; sympathize. ImageNet moment Generally used to refer to the success of deep learning in the ILSVRC 2012 competition, which used the Imagenet dataset. Semantic mapping A strategy for graphically representing concepts. A semantic word map allows students to conceptually explore their knowledge of a new word by mapping it with other related words or phrases similar in meaning to the new word. convalescent convalescence The gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury. It refers to the later stage of an infectious disease or illness when the patient recovers and returns to previous health, but may continue to be a source of infection to others even if feeling better. convalescent plasma The use of convalescent plasma is not a new concept. By giving patients plasma or serum from patients who have developed antibodies to a particular virus or bacteria, an infected patient is given a massive boost to their adaptive immune system, which confers passive immunity. It has been used since the 1800s. rambunctious Uncontrollably exuberant; boisterous. teleprinter teletypewriter Teletype TTY An electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to- multipoint configurations. representative study representative sample A subset of a population that seeks to accurately reflect the characteristics of the larger group. For example, a classroom of 30 students with 15 males and 15 females, could generate a representative sample that might include six students: three males and three females. prophylaxis Treatment given or action taken to prevent disease. vindicated Clear of blame or suspicion. fungible (of goods contracted for without an individual specimen being specified) able to replace or be replaced by another identical item; mutually interchangeable. Vigil A vigil, from the Latin vigilia meaning wakefulness, is a period of purposeful sleeplessness, an occasion for devotional watching, or an observance. The Italian word vigilia has become generalized in this sense and means "eve". Example: - Radioactive Man keeps a lonely vigil. ancillary Providing necessary support to the primary activities or operation of an organization, system, etc. quorum The minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group. absolved Declare (someone) free from guilt, obligation, or punishment. morbidly (with reference to a disturbing or unpleasant interest or activity) in an abnormal and unhealthy manner. pistachio A member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. withhold Refuse to give (something that is due to or is desired by another). praxis Practice, as distinguished from theory. narcissist A person who has an excessive interest in or admiration of themselves. conciliatory Intended or likely to placate or pacify. placate Make (someone) less angry or hostile. Frequency Bias Frequency Bias Illusion The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon The phenomenon where something you recently learned suddenly appears 'everywhere'. The seeming appearance of a newly-learned (or paid attention to) concept in unexpected places. comparative measure comparative measurement sighting A way of measuring the size of what you see and using those measurements to draw a larger or smaller image of the same. Direct measurement Set up your easel in such a way that your drawing of the figure is literally the same size as the model in your field of view. easel A wooden frame for holding an artist's work while it is being painted or drawn. Example: - Grandma's easel that was used at Josh and Hayley's wedding. remiss Lacking care or attention to duty; negligent. hellacious Very great, bad, or overwhelming. relent relented abandon or mitigate a severe or harsh attitude, especially by finally yielding to a request. incessantly Without interruption; constantly. LARP larping live action role-playing game A form of role-playing game where the participants in real life physically portray their characters. The players pursue goals within a fictional setting represented by the real world while interacting with each other in character. Obsolescence The process of becoming obsolete or outdated and no longer used. bereft Archaic past participle of bereave. provisioning [telecommunication] Involves the process of preparing and equipping a network to allow it to provide new services to its users. white-label product A product or service produced by one company (the producer) that other companies (the marketers) rebrand to make it appear as if they had made it. remit The task or area of activity officially assigned to an individual or organization. epistemology The branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. Epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. arduous Involving or requiring strenuous effort; difficult and tiring. embolism The lodging of an embolus, a blockage- causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel. The embolus may be a blood clot (thrombus), a fat globule (fat embolism), a bubble of air or other gas (gas embolism), or foreign material. rapport A friendly, harmonious relationship especially : a relationship characterized by agreement, mutual understanding, or empathy that makes communication possible or easy. kidology The art or practice of deliberately deceiving or teasing people. diegesis A style of fiction storytelling that presents an interior view of a world in which: Details about the world itself and the experiences of its characters are revealed explicitly through narrative. The story is told or recounted, as opposed to shown or enacted. proclivity A tendency to choose or do something regularly; an inclination or predisposition towards a particular thing. suffused Gradually spread through or over. subtext An underlying and often distinct theme in a piece of writing or conversation. Any content of a creative work which is not announced explicitly by the characters or author, but is implicit or becomes something understood by the observer of the work as the production unfolds. snark noun ---- An imaginary animal (used typically with reference to a task or goal that is elusive or impossible to achieve). "pinning down the middle classes is like the hunting of the snark" verb ---- make snide and sharply critical comments. "they even snark about her family background" emblematic serving as a symbol of a particular quality or concept; symbolic. "this case is emblematic of a larger problem" vindicating clear (someone) of blame or suspicion. "hospital staff were vindicated by the inquest verdict" haughty Arrogantly superior and disdainful. defraud Illegally obtain money from (someone) by deception. laconic (of a person, speech, or style of writing) using very few words. "his laconic reply suggested a lack of interest in the topic" curt Rudely brief in speech or abrupt in manner. Brief; concise; terse; laconic. short; shortened. Example: "She can be a bit curt." ingress The action or fact of going in or entering; the capacity or right of entrance. reify refies reification Make (something abstract) more concrete or real. A red rose may be a reification of the concept of love. "The following exchange reifies freedom and stability..." burgeoning Begin to grow or increase rapidly; flourish. amenable (of a person) open and responsive to suggestion; easily persuaded or controlled. inscrutable Impossible to understand or interpret. animism The belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork and perhaps even words —as animated and alive. pretence An attempt to make something that is not the case appear true. vainglory Excessive pride in oneself or one's achievements; excessive vanity. facetiously Not meant to be taken seriously or literally: a facetious remark. amusing; humorous. lacking serious intent; concerned with something nonessential, amusing, or frivolous: a facetious person. oligarchs A form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. cinder block Fabricated of concrete and coal cinders. Concrete block is produced by steel, wood, and cement. Cinder blocks are lighter than concrete blocks. A concrete block contains stone or sand which makes it heavier. preternaturally The preternatural is that which appears outside or beside the natural. It is "suspended between the mundane and the miraculous". maudlin Self-pityingly or tearfully sentimental, often through drunkenness. moribund (of a person) At the point of death. rumination A deep or considered thought about something. duly In accordance with what is required or appropriate; following proper procedure or arrangement. cognitive dissonance The state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioural decisions and attitude change. onosecond The horrible moment when you realise that you have accidentally done something very slightly wrong which has very bad (usually embarassing) implications for you. This is typically the moment of realisation that you just sent a dirty text message to a close member of family, typically your mother, rather than the intended recipient. sinewy Consisting of or resembling sinews. maw The jaws or throat of a voracious animal. ordinance An authoritative order. aegis The protection, backing, or support of a particular person or organization. germane Relevant to a subject under consideration. Example: "that is not germane to our theme" lurid Very vivid in color, especially so as to create an unpleasantly harsh or unnatural effect. laundry list A long or exhaustive list of people or things. guile Sly or cunning intelligence. haughtiness The appearance or quality of being arrogantly superior and disdainful. denigrate Criticize unfairly; disparage. missiological Missiology is the area of practical theology that investigates the mandate, message, and mission of the Christian church, especially the nature of missionary work. Gematria An alphanumeric code of assigning a numerical value to a name, word or phrase based on its letters. A single word can yield multiple values depending on the cipher used. Gematria originated as an Assyro- Babylonian-Greek system of alphanumeric code or cipher that was later adopted into Jewish culture. calisthenics A form of exercise consisting of a variety of movements that exercise large muscle groups (gross motor movements), such as running, standing, grasping, pushing, etc. These exercises are often performed rhythmically and with minimal equipment, as bodyweight exercises. abridged (of a piece of writing) having been shortened. Maximalism In the arts, maximalism, a reaction against minimalism, is an aesthetic of excess. The philosophy can be summarized as "more is more", contrasting with the minimalist motto "less is more". erstwhile former precarity precariousness A precarious existence, lacking in predictability, job security, material or psychological welfare. The social class defined by this condition has been termed the precariat. The state of having insecure employment or income. precariat [#sociology and economics] The social class defined by the condition of having precarity. A neologism for a social class formed by people suffering from precarity, which is a condition of existence without predictability or security, affecting material or psychological welfare. The term is a portmanteau obtained by merging precarious with proletariat. proletariat Working-class people regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism). "the growth of the industrial proletariat" formal knowledge codified knowledge explicit knowledge tacit knowledge implicit knowledge (as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge) The kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. pared down To reduce the size of something by cutting or shaving off its outer layers; trim something: I pared down the tiles so that they would fit snugly together. discombobulate Disconcert or confuse (someone). contemplative macabre Disturbing because concerned with or causing a fear of death. Parisian A person who was born in, or is a citizen or inhabitant of, Paris, France manifesto A public declaration of policy and aims, especially one issued before an election by a political party or candidate. senescence The condition or process of deterioration with age. disparity A great difference. regale Entertain or amuse (someone) with talk. steward A person employed to look after the passengers on a ship, aircraft, or train. sommelier A wine waiter/steward. adjudicator Someone who presides, judges, and arbitrates during a formal dispute or competition. They have numerous purposes, including preliminary legal judgments, to determine applicant eligibility, or to assess contenders' performance in competitions. A person who adjudicates. deign Do something that one considers to be beneath one's dignity. protracted Lasting for a long time or longer than expected or usual. pendantic overscrupulous Excessively scrupulous. pernickety Placing too much emphasis on trivial or minor details; fussy. Too pedantic. pragmatic Dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations. Pragmatics [field of study] A subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology didactic Intended to teach, particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive. hitherto Until now or until the point in time under discussion. "revealed hitherto unknown buildings". usurper A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy. In other words, a person who takes the power of a country, city, or established region for themselves, without any formal or legal right to claim it as their own. ardent Very enthusiastic or passionate. avarice Extreme greed for wealth or material gain. Teleology finality A reason or explanation for something as a function of its end, purpose, or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. telos A term used by philosopher Aristotle to refer to the full potential or inherent purpose or objective of a person or thing, similar to the notion of an 'end goal' or 'raison d'être'. Moreover, it can be understood as the "supreme end of man's endeavour." The root of the modern term 'teleology', the study of purposiveness or of objects with a view to their aims, purposes, or intentions. Teleology is central in Aristotle's work on biology and in his theory of causes. Natural teleology Common in classical philosophy, though controversial today. Contends that natural entities also have intrinsic purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a fully grown oak tree. relegate Assign an inferior rank or position to. delegate Entrust (a task or responsibility) to another person, typically one who is less senior than oneself. stoic A person who can endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or complaining. Ontology The philosophical study of being. More broadly, it studies concepts that directly relate to being, in particular becoming, existence, reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. emancipation The fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions; liberation. petroglyph A rock carving, especially a prehistoric one. verdant (of countryside) green with grass or other rich vegetation. Of the bright green colour of lush grass. wrought (of metals) beaten out or shaped by hammering. chevron A V-shaped line or stripe, especially one on the sleeve of a uniform indicating rank or length of service. won't Will not. phrenology A process that involves observing and/or feeling the skull to determine an individual's psychological attributes. Franz Joseph Gall believed that the brain was made up of 27 individual organs that determined personality, the first 19 of these 'organs' he believed to exist in other animal species. melancholic Feeling or expressing pensive sadness. anaphora [grammar] The use of a word referring back to a word used earlier in a text or conversation, to avoid repetition, for example the pronouns he, she, it, and they and the verb do in I like it and so do they. [rhetoric] An anaphora is a rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them emphasis. In contrast: - epistrophe Related: - symploce epistrophe [rhetoric] Repeating words at the clauses' ends. symploce [rhetoric] The combination of anaphora and epistrophe. anaphoric Of or relating to anaphora an anaphoric usage especially : being a word or phrase that takes its reference from another word or phrase and especially from a preceding word or phrase — compare cataphoric. tacit Understood or implied without being stated. disconcerting Causing one to feel unsettled. militaristic The belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values. luddite A person opposed to new technology or ways of working. beleaguered Lay siege to. coalescing Come together to form one mass or whole. duress Threats, violence, constraints, or other action used to coerce someone into doing something against their will or better judgement. "under duress" unabashedly Without embarrassment or shame. embellished Make (something) more attractive by the addition of decorative details or features. antithesis A person or thing that is the direct opposite of someone or something else. Startups where you expect to not know what you will be working on that day -- that's the antithesis of the way I think since I'm always planning for the future -- like 5 - 10 years in the future, programming-wise. senpai An upperclassman who mentors an underclassman, or kohai. This term is used most often in English in reference to anime and manga and originates from Japanese 先輩, "earlier colleague". Used more broadly to mean "teacher" or "master." abhorance A feeling of revulsion; disgusted loathing. commend To present or represent as being worthy of regard, confidence, kindness, etc. To give in charge; entrust. To express a good opinion of; praise. bigot bigotry Intolerance toward those who hold different opinions from oneself. anachronnistic Belonging to a period other than that being portrayed. dysplastic Exhibiting dysplasia; containing abnormal cells or showing abnormal development. remiss Lacking care or attention to duty; negligent. Eureka An interjection used to celebrate a discovery or invention. It is a transliteration of an exclamation attributed to Ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. abominable Causing moral revulsion. contrapositive contrapositively A proposition or theorem formed by contradicting both the subject and predicate or both the hypothesis and conclusion of a given proposition or theorem and interchanging them: "if not-B then not-A" is the contrapositive of "if A then B". belie belies (of an appearance) fail to give a true impression of (something). "it belies...". obstinance The trait of being difficult to handle or overcome. - mulishness, - obstinacy, - stubbornness, - intractability, - intractableness The trait of being hard to influence or control. Resolute adherence to your own ideas or desires. potter puttering Occupy oneself in a desultory but pleasant way. astonishing Extremely surprising or impressive; amazing. laconic Using very few words. misanthropic Having or showing a dislike of other people; unsociable. avarice Extreme greed for wealth or material gain. incensed Very angry; enraged. contrivances The use of skill to create or bring about something, especially with a consequent effect of artificiality. A device, especially in literary or artistic composition, which gives a sense of artificiality. presumptuous When you say someone is presumptuous, you mean that the person is overconfident and is acting rudely or inappropriately. A presumptuous person takes liberties. Full of, characterized by, or showing presumption or readiness to presume in conduct or thought, as by saying or doing something without right or permission. unwarrantedly or impertinently bold; forward. impertinent Not showing proper respect; rude. profligacy Reckless extravagance or wastefulness in the use of resources. dissolute Lax in morals; licentious. "dissolute behaviour". cloistered cloister An enclosed garden, usually surrounded by covered walkways. Because such spaces are often featured in buildings that house religious orders, cloister can be used to mean "monastery" or "convent." prostrate Defenseless. "is prostrate". circcuavallation A defensive wall of a castle or walled city. escalade escalade assault The act of scaling defensive walls or ramparts with the aid of ladders, and was a prominent feature of sieges in ancient and medieval warfare. It was one of the most direct options available for attacking a fortification, but was also one of the most dangerous. Escalade consisted simply of soldiers advancing to the base of a wall, setting ladders, and climbing to engage the defending forces. This would generally be conducted in the face of arrow fire from the battlements, and the defenders would naturally attempt to push ladders away from the wall. Heated or incendiary substances such as boiling water, heated sand, and pitch- coated missiles were sometimes poured on attacking soldiers. edifice A large, imposing building. temperament A person's or animal's nature, especially as it permanently affects their behaviour. repudiate Refuse to accept or be associated with. unflappability Persistently calm, whether when facing difficulties or experiencing success; not easily upset or excited. archetypal prototypal archetypical prototypical An original type, form, or instance serving as a basis or standard. Mildew A surface fungi that can easily be identified as a patch of gray or even white fungus that is lying on the surface of a moist area. Mildew is easily treated with a store bought cleaner and a scrubbing brush. Mold, on the other hand, can be black or green and is often the result of a much larger infestation. ruse An action intended to deceive someone; a trick. despise Feel contempt or a deep repugnance for. contempt The feeling that a person or a thing is worthless or beneath consideration. repugnance Intense disgust. convocation A large formal assembly of people. adorn Make more beautiful or attractive. Martial law Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an occupied territory. allegory A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one. "Pilgrim's Progress is an allegory of the spiritual journey" topical (of a subject) of immediate relevance, interest, or importance owing to its relation to current events. applicability The quality of being relevant or appropriate. extenuating Making forgivable. The adjective extenuating is unusual because it's almost always used with the word circumstances; the phrase extenuating circumstances describes the specific reasons that excuse or justify someone's actions. (of a factor or situation) serving to lessen the seriousness of an offence. "extenuating circumstances". https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?smoothing=3&corpus=26&year_end=2019&content=extenuating+%2A&year_start=1800&direct_url=t2%3B%2Cextenuating%20%2A%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bextenuating%20circumstances%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20circumstance%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20the%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20or%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20his%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20and%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20their%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20factors%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20plea%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20nothing%3B%2Cc0#t2%3B%2Cextenuating%20*%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bextenuating%20circumstances%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20circumstance%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20the%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20or%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20his%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20and%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20their%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20factors%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20plea%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bextenuating%20nothing%3B%2Cc0 incarceration The state of being confined in prison; imprisonment. inadmissible (especially of evidence in court) not accepted as valid. petulent (of a person or their manner) childishly sulky or bad-tempered. schlepping Haul or carry (something heavy or awkward). (of a person) go or move reluctantly or with effort. confer Have discussions; exchange opinions. facsimile "fak-similee" An exact copy, especially of written or printed material. apprehensive Anxious or fearful that something bad or unpleasant will happen. duress Threats, violence, constraints, or other action used to coerce someone into doing something against their will or better judgement. "admit ones true feelings while under extreme duress" Adage An adage is a concise, memorable, and usually philosophical aphorism that communicates an important truth derived from experience, custom, or both, and that many people consider true and credible because of its longeval tradition, i.e. being handed down generation to generation, or memetic replication. hubris Excessive pride or self-confidence. "height of hubris". Subject-matter expert SME A subject-matter expert is a person who is an authority in a particular area or topic. The term is used when developing materials about a topic, and expertise on the topic is needed by the personnel developing the material. For example, tests are often created by a team of psychometricians and a team of SMEs. trounced Defeat heavily in a contest. emergent emergence belie belying Contradict, belie, negate -- (be in contradiction with). irrevocably In a way that cannot be changed, reversed, or recovered. 'my life changed irrevocably in an instant' oxford comma [English language punctuation] "a, b, and c" A serial comma, or series comma, is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term in a series of three or more terms. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy and Spain" or "France, Italy, and Spain" asshattery Calling someone an asshat is generally a way to insult them for being rude and self-centered. The obnoxious actions made by an asshat, which usually involve angering or disregarding other people, are known as asshattery. Manatee Large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee, the West Indian manatee, and the West African manatee. hearken Listen. unfalsifiable Confidently asserting that a theory or hypothesis is true or false even though the theory or hypothesis cannot possibly be contradicted by an observation or the outcome of any physical experiment, usually without strong evidence or good reasons. unrequited (of a feeling, especially love) not returned. husbandry The care, cultivation, and breeding of crops and animals. - farm management, - farming, - agriculture, - land management, - agronomy, - agronomics, - agribusiness, - cultivation, - tillage, - animal husbandry ream 500 (formally, 480) sheets of paper. Examples: - reams of text - reams of paper isomorphous isomorphic Having similar appearance but genetically different. However we should not forget that the relationships between words are isomorphic to the relations between things - that isomorphism is why language works. vassal A holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance. equiprobable (of two or more things) equally likely to occur; having equal probability. lackadaisical Lacking enthusiasm and determination; carelessly lazy. placate placated Make (someone) less angry or hostile. propitiate Win or regain the favour of (a god, spirit, or person) by doing something that pleases them. tranquillize [literary] Make tranquil. "joys that tranquillize the mind". literary Concerning the writing, study, or content of literature, especially of the kind valued for quality of form. lullaby cradle song A soothing song or piece of music that is usually played for children. The purposes of lullabies vary. In some societies they are used to pass down cultural knowledge or tradition. brimming Be full to the point of overflowing. belligerent An individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. Belligerent comes from Latin, literally meaning "one who wages war". rescinded Revoke, cancel or repeal. countenance A person's face or facial expression. redressed Remedy or set right (an undesirable or unfair situation). paragon Someone or something that is the very best. The English noun paragon comes from the Italian word paragone, which is a touchstone, a black stone that is used to tell the quality of gold. You rub the gold on the touchstone and you can find out how good the gold is. Stratification A system or formation of layers, classes, or categories. Stratification is used to describe a particular way of arranging seeds while planting, as well as the geological layers of rocks. ravishing delightful; entrancing. "ravishing resourcefulness". nefarious unabashed Not embarrassed, disconcerted, or ashamed. bootlegging The illegal manufacture, distribution, or sale of goods, especially alcohol or recordings. trafficking The act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring or receiving a person; By means of e.g. coercion, deception or abuse of vulnerability; For the purpose of exploitation, such as sexual exploitation, slavery and forced labour, among others. conspiratorial Relating to or suggestive of a secret plan made by a group of people to do something unlawful or harmful. emancipate Set free, especially from legal, social, or political restrictions. maxim A succinct formulation of a principle, rule, or basic truth about life. Usually clever, maxims are like great sayings everybody knows. A maxim sums up a fundamental principle or truth about something in a way that captures the imagination and gets repeated. apocryphal (of a story or statement) of doubtful authenticity, although widely circulated as being true. "an apocryphal story about a former president" of or belonging to the Apocrypha. "the apocryphal Gospel of Thomas" capacious Having a lot of space inside; roomy. incredulous (of a person or their manner) unwilling or unable to believe something. "Be not incredulous to the fear of the Lord: and come not to him with a double heart." poignant Evoking a keen sense of sadness or regret. poignancy the quality of evoking a keen sense of sadness or regret; pathos. 'the pregnancy has a special poignancy for her family' pathos A quality that evokes pity or sadness. extant (especially of a document) still in existence; surviving. vocation A strong feeling of suitability for a particular career or occupation. 'not all of us have a vocation to be nurses or doctors' synonyms: - calling, life's work, mission, purpose, function, position, niche, profession, occupation, career, job, day job, work, employment, pursuit, trade, craft, business, line, line of work, speciality, specialty, province, sphere, walk of life, métier, line of country, game, thing, bag, racket trepidation A feeling of fear or anxiety about something that may happen. inexorably inexorable Impossible to stop or prevent. "I'm inexorably unable to work on NLP due to the NZ job market." desecration The act of depriving something of its sacred character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of that which is held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual. profane Not relating to that which is sacred or religious; secular. profanation The act or an instance of profaning. contemptuous Showing contempt; scornful. contempt The feeling that a person or a thing is worthless or beneath consideration. minutiae The small, precise, or trivial details of something. "the minutiae of everyday life" joie de vivre [French phrase] Often used in English to express a cheerful enjoyment of life; an exultation of spirit. It "can be a joy of conversation, joy of eating, joy of anything one might do… And joie de vivre may be seen as a joy of everything, a comprehensive joy, a philosophy of life, a Weltanschauung. whimsy Playfully quaint or fanciful behaviour or humour. "the film is an awkward blend of whimsy and moralizing" compendium A collection of concise but detailed information about a particular subject, especially in a book or other publication. "an invaluable compendium of useful information about language" slipstream A slipstream is a region behind a moving object in which a wake of fluid is moving at velocities comparable to the moving object, relative to the ambient fluid through which the object is moving. The term slipstream also applies to the similar region adjacent to an object with a fluid moving around it. postmodernism A broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism, marking a departure from modernism. The term has been more generally applied to describe a historical era said to follow after modernity and the tendencies of this era. hyperreality [semiotics] [postmodernism] An inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced postmodern societies. simulacra and simulation News may be a simulation. The reaction is the simulacra. simulacra simulacrum The reaction from the simulation. An image or representation of someone or something. "a small-scale simulacrum of a skyscraper" An unsatisfactory imitation or substitute. "a bland simulacrum of American soul music" atrophied (of body tissue or an organ) wasted away or rudimentary. toponym A place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature. anadiplosis v +/"Anadiplosis" "$HOME/Calibre Library/Mark Forsyth/The Elements of Eloquence (6)/The Elements of Eloquence - Mark Forsyth.txt"

Polyptoton
The stylistic scheme in which words
derived from the same root are repeated.

A related stylistic device is
antanaclasis, in which the same word is
repeated, but each time with a different
sense.

Merism
[linguistic phenomenon]

A combination of two contrasting parts of
the whole refer to the whole.

For example, in order to say that someone
"searched everywhere", one could use the
merism "searched high and low"

Aposiopesis
[figure of speech]

A sentence is deliberately broken off and
left unfinished, the ending to be supplied
by the imagination, giving an impression
of unwillingness or inability to continue.

An example would be the threat "Get out,
or else—!"

Diacope
A rhetorical term meaning repetition of a
word or phrase with one or two intervening
words. It derives from a Greek word
meaning "cut in two".

Diacope () is a rhetorical term meaning
repetition of a word or phrase with one or
two intervening words. It derives from a
Greek word meaning "cut in two".

A verbal sandwich: a word or phrase is
repeated after a brief interruption.

You take two Bonds and stuff James in the
middle.

Bingo.

You have a great line.

Or if you like you can take two burns and
stuff a baby in the middle, and you've got
a political slogan and disco hit: burn,
baby, burn ("Disco Inferno").

If you want to write the greatest line in
The Godfather Part II, all you need is two

It was yous with a Fredo, I know as the
stuffing.

In fact, you don't even need to use
diacope at all.

Diacope has a life of its own and flits,
like a winged monkey, into places it was
never meant to be.

Every child remembers how, in The Wizard
of Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West14
cries: "Fly, my pretties, fly!"

Epistrophe

Tricolon

Epizeuxis

Syllepsis

Isocolon

Enallage

Versification

Zeugma

Chiasmus

Assonance

Catachresis

Litotes

Metonymy

Synecdoche

Epithets

Pleonasm
v +/"Pleonasm is the use of unneeded words" "$HOME/Calibre Library/Mark Forsyth/The Elements of Eloquence (6)/The Elements of Eloquence - Mark Forsyth.txt" The use of unneeded words that are superfluous and unnecessary in a sentence that doesn't require them. It's repeating the same thing again twice, and it annoys and irritates people. Some cannot see a pleonasm without flying into a furious rage. But that is rather silly. There are three different varieties of pleonasm: the tiny, the lazy, and the lovely. Epanalepsis Beginning and ending with the same word. v +/"John Lennon complained that the song" "$HOME/Calibre Library/Mark Forsyth/The Elements of Eloquence (6)/The Elements of Eloquence - Mark Forsyth.txt"

Hyperbole
The technical term for exaggeration, and
even though we have literally thousands of
English words that mean the same thing,
hyperbole is one of the few technical
Greek rhetorical terms that absolutely
everybody knows.

That may be because we exaggerate
constantly.

The human being is the great embroiderer.

It's not enough for us to say that we
waited for ten minutes; we have to wait
"for ages."

If I've told you twice, I've told you a
thousand times.

If you're rich, you have a ton of money.

It's enough to make you break down in a
flood of tears.

v +/"Adynaton" "HOME/Calibre Library/Mark Forsyth/The Elements of Eloquence (6)/The Elements of Eloquence - Mark Forsyth.txt" Before an adynaton will work, pigs will fly, Hell will freeze over and the Devil will go skiing. You might as well try to get blood out of a stone. It's therefore a very easy, if very periphrastic, way of saying no. Prolepsis Congeries Scesis Onomaton Anaphora Peroration Horologicon The Horologicon: A Day's Jaunt Through the Lost Words of the English Language [Book by Mark Forsyth] "Book of Hours" - published in 2012 A non-fiction book by Mark Forsyth. tumultuous Making an uproar or loud, confused noise. stately Impressive or grand in size, appearance, or manner. "a stately 19th-century mansion". volition The faculty or power of using one's will. fallible Capable of making mistakes or being wrong. conceit In the modern literary criticism, more common with genre fiction, conceit often means an extended rhetorical device, summed up in a short phrase, that refers to a situation which either does not exist, or exists rarely, but is needed for the plot. distress Extreme anxiety, sorrow, or pain. inconsistent Not staying the same throughout. egregious Outstandingly bad; shocking. surreptitiously In a way that attempts to avoid notice or attention; secretively. grist Grain that is ground to make flour. "Any type of text that’s been uploaded to the internet has likely become grist to GPT-3’s mighty pattern-matching mill." unconscionable Not right or reasonable. sublimely Completely; in a lofty and exalted manner; "awaking in me, sublimely unconscious, interest and energy for tackling these tasks". "sublimely happy". zenith Said: "zee-nith" The point on the celestial sphere vertically above a given position or observer. A highest point or state; culmination. antecedent A thing that existed before or logically precedes another. bereft Deprived of or lacking (something). exonerate exonerated (of an official body) absolve (someone) from blame for a fault or wrongdoing. insuperable (of a difficulty or obstacle) impossible to overcome. execrable Extremely bad or unpleasant. "morally execrable". palpably Noticeably or clearly. affront An action or remark that causes outrage or offence. "an outright affront to". Balkanize Divide (a region or body) into smaller mutually hostile states or groups. posit positied Put forward as fact or as a basis for argument. discrepancy An illogical or surprising lack of compatibility or similarity between two or more facts. infraction A violation or infringement of a law or agreement. retort Say something in answer to a remark, typically in a sharp, angry, or witty manner. borne Past participle of bear (carry). abject (of something bad) experienced or present to the maximum degree. "abject failure". trite If you say that something such as an idea, remark, or story is trite, you mean that it is dull and boring because it has been said or told too many times. platitude A platitude is a trite, meaningless, or prosaic statement, often used as a thought-terminating cliché, aimed at quelling social, emotional, or cognitive unease. edict A command or instruction given by someone in authority. delightful Causing delight; charming. truism A statement that is obviously true and says nothing new or interesting. pedagogy Teaching method. Approach to teaching. Ranching Ranch A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle and sheep most often applies to livestock- raising operations in Mexico, the Western United States and Western Canada, though there are ranches in other areas. Ranch vs farm A farm is a land where a farmer grows crops and livestock for dairy products. The focus of people working on a farm is to keep the soil fertile for growing healthy crops. A ranch, on the other hand, is a land where livestock such as sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs are raised. etude An étude (; French: [e.tyd], meaning 'study') is an instrumental musical composition, usually short, of considerable difficulty, and designed to provide practice material for perfecting a particular musical skill. The tradition of writing études emerged in the early 19th century with the rapidly growing popularity of the piano. stymied The Art of Fugue The Art of the Fugue German: Die Kunst der Fuge) [BWV 1080] An incomplete musical work of unspecified instrumentation by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750). Written in the last decade of his life, The Art of Fugue is the culmination of Bach's experimentation with monothematic instrumental works. contrapunctus The technique of combining two or more melodic lines in such a way that they establish a harmonic relationship while retaining their linear individuality. c. A composition or piece that incorporates or consists of contrapuntal writing. whimsical Playfully quaint or fanciful, especially in an appealing and amusing way. eminently To a notable degree; very. over-indulgent 1. To indulge (a desire, craving, or habit) to excess: overindulging a fondness for cake. 2. To indulge (a person) excessively: overindulges his children. To indulge in something to excess. watershed An area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas. watershed moment A turning point, the exact moment that changes the direction of an activity or situation. A watershed moment is a dividing point, from which things will never be the same. It is considered momentous, though a watershed moment is often recognized in hindsight. pub public house anaphoric anaphora The use of an expression whose interpretation depends upon another expression in context. witicism A witty remark. raconteur A person who tells anecdotes in a skilful and amusing way. bumble Move or act in an awkward or confused manner. felicitous Well chosen or suited to the circumstances. fecund Producing or capable of producing an abundance of offspring or new growth; fertile. syllogism A kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. In a form, defined by Aristotle, from the combination of a general statement and a specific statement, a conclusion is deduced. haiku An English language poem written in the Japanese poetry style known as haiku. The degree to which haiku in English resemble classic Japanese haiku varies, but many of these poems draw on short, concise wording and a reference to nature. ostensible Stated or appearing to be true, but not necessarily so. "ostensible power". colleague A person with whom one works in a profession or business. apostate One who undertakes apostasy. apostasy The abandonment or renunciation of a religious or political belief or principle. The formal disaffiliation from, abandonment of, or renunciation of a religion by a person. It can also be defined within the broader context of embracing an opinion that is contrary to one's previous religious beliefs. worldview world-view The fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view. Can include: - natural philosophy; - fundamental, - existential, and - normative postulates; or - themes, - values, - emotions, and - ethics. bilboes grillos (always plural) Iron restraints normally placed on a person's ankles. They have commonly been used as leg shackles to restrain prisoners for different purposes until the modern ages. Bilboes were also used on slave ships, such as the Henrietta Marie. According to legend, the device was invented in Bilbao, Basque Country within Spain, and was imported into England by the ships of the Spanish Armada for use on prospective English prisoners. However, the Oxford English Dictionary notes that the term was used in English well before then. oust parochial If you describe someone as parochial, you are critical of them because you think they are too concerned with their own affairs and should be thinking about more important things. parochialism The quality of being parochial in your attitude. Parochialism is the state of mind, whereby one focuses on small sections of an issue rather than considering its wider context. More generally, it consists of being narrow in scope. In that respect, it is a synonym of "provincialism". It may, particularly when used pejoratively, be contrasted to universalism. The term insularity (related to an island) may be similarly used. The term originates from the idea of a parish (Late Latin: parochia), one of the smaller divisions within many Christian churches such as the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican churches. austere Severe or strict in manner, attitude, or appearance. pentamerous pentameral 1. Having five similar parts. 2. Having flower parts, such as petals, sepals, and stamens, in sets of five. pentamerous flower A flower which has 5 petals or in the multiple of five. Each floral whorl consists of five (or a multiple of five) members whorl verticil An arrangement of leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels that radiate from a single point and surround or wrap around the stem or stalk. A leaf whorl consists of at least three elements; a pair of opposite leaves is not called a whorl. inaugurate Begin or introduce (a system, policy, or period). "Inaugurate an era of peace." chauvinism A form of extreme patriotism and nationalism, a fervent faith in national excellence and glory. It is an irrational belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people, who are seen as strong and virtuous, while others are considered weak or unworthy. prissy Fussily and excessively respectable. transient A person who is staying or working in a place for a short time only. A momentary variation in current, voltage, or frequency. impunity Exemption from punishment or freedom from the injurious consequences of an action. remanded garden variety Of the usual or ordinary type; commonplace. topical (of a subject) of immediate relevance, interest, or importance owing to its relation to current events. - current or to a particular time - topical with regard to time is the current time. - with regard to other things, it refers to a (one of the) topic/s of something. "a popular topical affairs programme" Synonyms: - contemporary - current (but contemporary and current are not synonyms) contemporaneous Existing or occurring in the same period of time. Example: - contemporaneous sequels contemporary Living or occurring at the same time. recalcitrance recalcitrant Obstinately defiant of authority or restraint. Difficult to manage or operate. Not responsive to treatment. firmament [biblical cosmology] The vast solid dome created by God on the second day to divide the primal sea into upper and lower portions so that the dry land could appear: Then God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” synthesize Make (something) by synthesis, especially chemically. extradite extradition An act where one jurisdiction delivers a person accused or convicted of committing a crime in another jurisdiction, over to their law enforcement. It is a cooperative law enforcement process between the two jurisdictions and depends on the arrangements made between them. daily driver [informal north american] A car for everyday use. "the Corvette will be my daily driver" ratify Sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid. schlocky Something, such as merchandise or literature, that is inferior or poorly made. predication A proclamation, announcement or preaching. An assertion or affirmation. (logic) The act of making something the subject or predicate of a proposition. ascertain Find (something) out for certain; make sure of. insipid Lacking flavour; weak or tasteless. concision [french] Qualité d'une personne concise, de ce qui est concis. La concision du style, de la pensée. Similar: - brièveté - sobriété marionette A puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations. A marionette's puppeteer is called a marionettist. bourgeois town-dweller middle-class Belonging to or characteristic of the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes. "a rich, bored, bourgeois family" bourgeoisie The middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes. "the rise of the bourgeoisie at the end of the eighteenth century" befuddled Cause to become unable to think clearly. "even in my befuddled state I could see that they meant trouble" eternal return eternal recurrence A concept that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space. enharmonic equivalent In modern musical notation and tuning, an enharmonic equivalent is a note, interval, or key signature that is equivalent to some other note, interval, or key signature but "spelled", or named differently. Pitches such as F♯ and G♭ are said to be enharmonic equivalents; both are sounded with the same key on a keyboard instrument. The same is true of intervals, which are always named according to their notation: A♭–F♯ is an augmented sixth, while A♭–G♭ and G♯–F♯ are both minor sevenths; all are enharmonically equivalent. enharmonic scale An [imaginary] gradual progression by quarter tones or any [musical] scale proceeding by quarter tones. The enharmonic scale uses dieses nonexistent on most keyboards, since modern standard keyboards have only half-tone dieses. diesis The double dagger symbol ‡. quantization [mathematics] [digital signal processing] The process of mapping input values from a large set to output values in a smaller set, often with a finite number of elements. Examples: - Rounding - truncation censoriousness censorious Harshly critical or expressing censure; "was censorious of petty failings" critical - marked by a tendency to find and call attention to errors and flaws; "a critical attitude" collateral Accompanying as secondary or subordinate. Serving to support or reinforce. "Gave it to him as collateral". mishap An unlucky accident. "although there were a few minor mishaps, none of the pancakes stuck to the ceiling" verbatim Said "ver-bey-tim". disparage disparaged Regard or represent as being of little worth. If you disparage someone or something, you speak about them in a way which shows that you do not have a good opinion of them. denigrate Criticize unfairly; disparage. autocratic Relating to a ruler who has absolute power. skirt around (someone or something) 1. To lie around the edge of something. The small creek skirting around the edge of our property has always been a source of fascination to our kids. "The proposed highway will skirt around the city to ease the pressure of rush-hour commuters." 2. To move around someone or something so as to avoid or evade them or it. "The pilots changed course in order to skirt around the storm." "I skirted around the security guard when his back was turned and made my way into the building." 3. To avoid or evade some issue or topic, as by circumlocution. displaced reference A term for conversations in which people describe things that have occurred in the past. Until now, it has only ever been observed in humans—it was assumed that other animals are not capable of understanding the idea of things happening in the past or the future. Orangutans do it too. no bearing To be relevant/not relevant to something, or to have an influence/no influence on it. His private life has no bearing on his competence as a manager. Synonyms and related words. deranged Mad; insane. Crazed, insane, demented, unbalanced, and unhinged are all synonyms for deranged. unbalanced of unsound mind not giving accurate, fair, or equal coverage to all aspects; partial. "this may give an unbalanced impression of the competition" (of a person) emotionally or mentally disturbed. "she considered him to be mentally unbalanced and dangerous" rectify Put right; correct. convert (alternating current) to direct current. "the current from the transformers is rectified by high-voltage diodes" See "rectenna". espouse Adopt or support (a cause, belief, or way of life). blackball Reject (a candidate applying to become a member of a private club), typically by means of a secret ballot. "her husband was blackballed when he tried to join the Country Club" self-reference self-referential Occurs in natural or formal languages when a sentence, idea or formula refers to itself. The reference may be expressed either directly—through some intermediate sentence or formula—or by means of some encoding. A statement that refers to itself or its own referent. The most famous example of a self- referential sentence is the liar sentence: “This sentence is not true.” Self-reference is often used in a broader context as well. For instance, a picture could be considered self-referential if it contains a copy of itself (see the animated image above); and a piece of literature could be considered self-referential if it includes a reference to the work itself. In philosophy, self-reference is primarily studied in the context of language. Self-reference within language is not only a subject of philosophy, but also a field of individual interest in mathematics and CS, in particular in relation to the foundations of these sciences. filibuster A political procedure where one or more members of parliament or congress debate over a proposed piece of legislation so as to delay or entirely prevent a decision being made on the proposal. circumstantiality circumstantial thinking circumstantial speech People with circumstantiality often include excessive irrelevant details in their speaking or writing. They maintain their original train of thought but provide a lot of unnecessary details before circling back to their main point. deprecation The discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice, typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe, without completely removing it or prohibiting its use. good graces in (one's) good graces. In one's favor; having earned one's approval or regard. John's been in my good graces ever since he helped get me out of debt. I was definitely not in Mary's good graces for a while after I lost her cat. See also: good, grace. remediation The action of remedying something, in particular of reversing or stopping environmental damage. accretion Growth or increase by the gradual accumulation of additional layers or matter. progenitor A person or thing from which a person, animal, or plant is descended or originates; an ancestor or parent. A person who originates a cultural or intellectual movement. convalescence Time spent recovering from an illness or medical treatment; recuperation. 'a period of convalescence' - recuperation, - recovery, - return to health, - process of getting better, - rehabilitation, - improvement, - mending, - restoration convalescent convalescent person A person who is recovering from an illness or undergoing a period of rest and recovery. repertoire A stock of plays, dances, or items that a company or a performer knows or is prepared to perform. vaunted Praised or boasted about, especially in an excessive way. "our vaunted uniqueness" intelligible Able to be understood; comprehensible. thwarted prevent (someone) from accomplishing something. oppose (a plan, attempt, or ambition) successfully. "he never did anything to thwart his father" "thwarted death" congenial (of a person) pleasing or liked on account of having qualities or interests that are similar to one's own. "congenial to life" dupe duped Deceive; trick. vernacular the vernacular The language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region. sycophant A person who acts obsequiously towards someone important in order to gain advantage. An insincere flatterer. Used to refer to someone practicing sycophancy. simpering Affectedly coy or ingratiating. "she is clearly not a simpering female who can be pushed around" ingratiating Intended to gain approval or favour; sycophantic. tongue in cheek Speaking or writing in an ironic or insincere way. "one suspects that he is writing with tongue in cheek" corollary A proposition that follows from (and is often appended to) one already proved. ire Anger. "aroused the ire of ..." furnish Be a source of; provide. "fish furnish an important source of protein" "furnish information" fawning Displaying exaggerated flattery or affection; obsequious. advertorials A newspaper or magazine advertisement giving information about a product in the style of an editorial or objective journalistic article. vagabond A person who wanders from place to place without a home or job. provisional Something that has been arranged or appointed for the present, but may be changed in the future. "...the possibility of setting up a provisional coalition government..." "quantum mechanics is a provisional theory" dissimulate dissimulation The act of faking your true feelings. Your dissimulation of happiness might fool strangers but your close friends can tell it's all an act. The word dissimulation implies that the wool is being pulled over someone's eyes, or they're being fooled or tricked by someone's deceit. Conceal or disguise (one's thoughts, feelings, or character). "a country gentleman who dissimulates his wealth beneath ragged pullovers" avail Help or benefit. "no amount of struggle availed Charles" on my behalf To act or speak for another person when that other person permits because they either cannot themselves or are not physically present. vernacular The language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region. thankless Not likely to be appreciated or rewarded; unappreciated: a thankless job. Not feeling or expressing gratitude or appreciation; ungrateful: a thankless child. Examples: - thankless life - thankless job pizzazz with pizzazz An attractive combination of vitality and glamour. "a summer collection with pizzazz" fell [adjective] Of terrible evil or ferocity; deadly. "Sometimes, the wind also brought unnervingly fell sounds with it, as if a chorus of unholy demons was singing in the distance." dirge A lament for the dead, especially one forming part of a funeral rite. A mournful song, piece of music, or sound. "singers chanted dirges" A song or piece of music that is considered too slow, miserable, or boring. "after his ten-minute dirge, the audience booed" radii Said "ray-dee-eye". muster Assemble (troops), especially for inspection or in preparation for battle. in broad strokes [idiom] Major features or key points; outline. (idiomatic, especially of a narrative or artistic work) Developments, movements, or descriptions presented in a bold or sweeping manner, without intricacy, adornment, or subtlety. forlorn Pitifully sad and abandoned or lonely. languish (of a person, animal, or plant) lose or lack vitality; grow weak. "plants may appear to be languishing simply because they are dormant" Be forced to remain in an unpleasant place or situation. "he has been languishing in jail since 1974" aught else Anything. propound Put forward (an idea or theory) for consideration by others. "he began to propound the idea of a ‘social monarchy’ as an alternative to Franco" imperishable Enduring forever. countenance A person's face or facial expression. "his impenetrable eyes and inscrutable countenance give little away" "His countenance was stern" bray (of a person) speak or laugh loudly and harshly. "he brayed with laughter" presumptively Based on a presumption; presumed: the party's presumptive nominee. Providing a reasonable basis for belief or acceptance: presumptive evidence. indubitably Impossible to doubt. "indubitably, the last" jieba stuttering jieba (chinese) A speech disorder involving frequent problems with the normal fluency and flow of speech. compendium A collection of concise but detailed information about a particular subject, especially in a book or other publication. "compendium of nonsense" corroborate Confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, or finding). "I would like to corroborate your story before we proceed further." ascertain Find (something) out for certain; make sure of. "an attempt to ascertain the cause of the accident" "I am attempting to ascertain whether Dr. Tainer's story is true." cur Used to describe a mongrel dog, particularly of aggressive or unfriendly nature. The term is believed to be derived from the Old Norse kurra, meaning 'to grumble or growl'. supplant Supersede and replace. purview The scope of the influence or concerns of something. livery A special uniform worn by a servant, an official, or a member of a City Company. gaffer A person in charge of others; a boss. pall A thick, dark cloud of smoke. The bad news cast a pall over the evening. "pall of the cloud". subtle (especially of a change or distinction) so delicate or precise as to be difficult to analyse or describe. "his language expresses rich and subtle meanings". Making use of clever and indirect methods to achieve something. Crafty; cunning. bower A pleasant shady place under trees or climbing plants in a garden or wood. shade or enclose (a place or person). "trees here and there bowered the cottages" "the walls of your bower closing in about you" hutch A box or cage, typically with a wire mesh front, for keeping rabbits or other small domesticated animals. "a rabbit hutch" trammel Restrictions or impediments to freedom of action. "we will forge our own future, free from the trammels of materialism" "a hutch to trammel some wild thing" stratagem A plan or scheme, especially one used to outwit an opponent or achieve an end. dramatization A play or film adapted from a novel or depicting a particular incident. "the film is a dramatization of a true story" The process of adapting a novel or presenting a particular incident in a play or film. "Plato's dramatization of Socrates" continuity Consistency of the characteristics of people, plot, objects, and places seen by the reader or viewer over some period of time. It is relevant to several media. Continuity is particularly a concern in the production of film and television due to the difficulty of rectifying an error in continuity after shooting has wrapped up. It also applies to other art forms, including novels, comics, and video games, though usually on a smaller scale. It also applies to fiction used by persons, corporations, and governments in the public eye. NIMBY Not In My Back Yard A person who objects to the siting of something perceived as unpleasant or hazardous in the area where they live, especially while raising no such objections to similar developments elsewhere. "rural development arouses intense suspicion from NIMBYs and conservationists" specious Superficially plausible, but actually wrong. petulant (of a person or their manner) childishly sulky or bad-tempered. pestilent adjective Destructive of life. Injuring or endangering society. Causing displeasure or annoyance. pernicious Having a harmful effect, especially in a gradual or subtle way. bikeshed A topic that is attracting debate ad nauseam, out of all proportion to its actual importance. bikeshedding The process of arguing endlessly over details of some small and relatively unimportant thing. Originates as a metaphor to explain Parkinson’s Law of Triviality. through line throughline A connecting theme, plot, or characteristic in a film, television series, book, etc. "despite the differences between the two seasons, there are still through lines" wait for the ball to drop (idiomatic, rare) To wait in expectation of an occurrence. zoomorphic Having or representing animal forms or gods of animal form. repudiation Rejection of a proposal or idea. "the repudiation of reformist policies" Denial of the truth or validity of something. surrogate A substitute, especially a person deputizing for another in a specific role or office. "she served as a surrogate for the President on a trip to South America" supposition A belief held without proof or certain knowledge; an assumption or hypothesis. stipulation A condition or requirement that is specified or demanded as part of an agreement. retcon Retroactive continuity Revise (an aspect of a fictional work) retrospectively, typically by introducing a piece of new information that imposes a different interpretation on previously described events. A literary device in which established diegetic 'facts' in the plot of a fictional work are adjusted, ignored, or contradicted by a subsequently published work which breaks continuity with the former. "I think fans get more upset when characters act blatantly out of established type, or when things get retconned" escapade An act or incident involving excitement, daring, or adventure. "latest escapade" chastised Rebuke or reprimand severely. scathing Witheringly scornful; severely critical. "she launched a scathing attack on the Prime Minister" schematic (of a diagram or other representation) symbolic and simplified. "a schematic representation" induce To bringing about a desired result. aspergion A false or misleading charge meant to harm someone's reputation casting aspersions on her integrity. The act of making such a charge : defamation. A sprinkling with water especially in religious ceremonies the aspersion of the congregation before Mass. cast aspergions To say harsh critical things about someone He tried to discuss his political opponents respectfully, without casting aspersions. unsubstantiated Not supported or proven by evidence. concede Admit that something is true or valid after first denying or resisting it. relent retented Abandon or mitigate a severe or harsh attitude, especially by finally yielding to a request. sleuth of bears A group of bears is called a sleuth or a sloth. zany zaniness The quality of being laughable or comical: comedy, comicality, comicalness, drollery, drollness, farcicality, funniness, humor, humorousness, jocoseness, jocosity, jocularity, ludicrousness, ridiculousness, wit, wittiness. prosaic Having or using the style or diction of prose as opposed to poetry; lacking imaginativeness or originality. "prosaic language can't convey the experience" ilk A type of person or thing similar to one already referred to. "the veiled suggestions that reporters of his ilk seem to be so good at" tapestry A picture woven into cloth. It's a decorative rug you hang on the wall, with detailed images or designs on it. Some tapestries, like the famous Unicorn Tapestries, tell stories with their pictures. Weaving an image into cloth is a brilliant idea — it makes art accessible and portable. power couple A couple consisting of two people who are each influential or successful in their own right. surreptitiously In a way that attempts to avoid notice or attention; secretively. "Mary surreptitiously slipped from the room" exquisite Extremely beautiful and delicate. "exquisite, jewel-like portraits" sympatico simpatico Getting along and having mutual understanding with another. A teacher who is caring and understanding of her students' needs may be described as sympatico. eschatology Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity. This concept is commonly referred to as the "end of the world" or "end times". "AI eschatology" broach Raise (a difficult subject) for discussion. "he broached the subject he had been avoiding all evening" gilded gilding gilt Covered thinly with gold leaf or gold paint. A decorative technique for applying a very thin coating of gold to solid surfaces such as metal, wood, porcelain, or stone. A gilded object is also described as "gilt". no quarter Generally used during military conflict to imply combatants would not be taken prisoner, but killed. Take no prisoners was a similar phrase also generally used. Luddite Ludditism A person opposed to new technology or ways of working. A member of any of the bands of English workers who destroyed machinery, especially in cotton and woollen mills, that they believed was threatening their jobs (1811–16). derezzed derez deresolution A term used to describe someone or something disappearing or dissolving, essentially resulting in deletion. It is a program's equivalent of death or the destruction of a building or vehicle. minstrel A medieval European entertainer. Originally describing any type of entertainer such as a musician, juggler, acrobat, singer or fool, the term later, from the sixteenth century, came to mean a specialist entertainer who sang songs and played musical instruments. trying times Times of trouble, struggle, or unhappiness. I've had my share of trying times over the years, but they helped shape me into the person I am today. foundling An infant that has been abandoned by its parents and is discovered and cared for by others. squall A sudden violent gust of wind or localized storm, especially one bringing rain, snow, or sleet. "A terrible squall rustled the ocean floor." veneer A thin sheet of a material: such as. - a layer of wood of superior value or excellent grain to be glued to an inferior wood. - any of the thin layers bonded together to form plywood. "Hidden beneath a human veneer." demeaning Causing someone to lose their dignity and the respect of others. neutered abridge foreshorten abbreviate shorten Reduce in scope while retaining essential elements. "The manuscript must be shortened" Lessen, diminish, or curtail. "the new law might abridge our freedom of expression" biopic A film dramatizing the life of a particular person, typically a public or historical figure. coalescence The joining or merging of elements to form one mass or whole. "the lack of coalescence among fields of science" preponderance The quality or fact of being greater in number, quantity, or importance. unbefitting Not appropriate; unsuitable. "unbefitting conduct" shewing shew Old-fashioned spelling of show. plaintiff The party who initiates a lawsuit before a court. By doing so, the plaintiff seeks a legal remedy; if this search is successful, the court will issue judgment in favor of the plaintiff and make the appropriate court order. chiching Celebratory remarks when you've made a deal or money. A win win situation when the outcome benefits each of two often opposing groups. The sound of a cash register drawer opening to collect money for a sale. conviction The feeling of being sure that what you believe or say is true. Someone being found guilty of a crime or having a strong belief in something. No longer with any doubt. Examples: - Being found guilty of driving while intoxicated. - Completely believing they are right about something. vindication The action of clearing someone of blame or suspicion. "I intend to work to ensure my full vindication" Proof that someone or something is right, reasonable, or justified. "the results were interpreted as vindication of the company's policy" Celluloid A class of materials produced by mixing nitrocellulose and camphor, often with added dyes and other agents. Once much more common, celluloid's common contemporary uses are table tennis balls, musical instruments, combs, office equipment, and guitar picks. behoove It is a duty or responsibility for someone to do something. "it behoves the House to assure itself that there is no conceivable alternative" It is appropriate or suitable; it befits. "it ill behoves Opposition Members to decry the sale of arms to friendly countries" adamant Refusing to be persuaded or to change one's mind. "he is adamant that he is not going to resign" progeniture The production of offspring; procreation. Progeny; offspring. adjudicate Make a formal judgement on a disputed matter. "the Committee adjudicates on all betting disputes" retrograde Directed or moving backwards. "a retrograde flow" Same direction as rotation. "retrograde orbit" Apparent retrograde motion The apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point. Direct motion or prograde motion is motion in the same direction as other bodies. Detritus [biology] Dead particulate organic material, as distinguished from dissolved organic material. Detritus typically includes the bodies or fragments of bodies of dead organisms, and fecal material. Detritus typically hosts communities of microorganisms that colonize and decompose it. matter-of-fact Adhering to the unembellished facts. Being plain, straightforward, or unemotional. dash-case kebab-case lisp-case spinal-case relatably [not a real word] In a relatable manner. adjudication vs arbitration Arbitration is a procedure in which both sides agree to let an impartial third party, the arbitrator, decide the case. In adjudication, the decision is the responsibility of a third party adjudicator selected by the parties to the dispute. satiety The feeling or state of being sated. sensory-specific satiety A sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food. dishevelled (of a person's hair, clothes, or appearance) untidy; disordered. misgive misgave (of a person's mind or heart) fill (that person) with doubt, apprehension, or foreboding. assiduous Showing great care and perseverance. "she was assiduous in pointing out every feature" deterrence The action of discouraging an action or event through instilling doubt or fear of the consequences. empathy The capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position. externality An externality is a cost or benefit caused by a producer that is not financially incurred or received by that producer. An externality can be both positive or negative and can stem from either the production or consumption of a good or service. "An unpriced externality". fraudulence The action or quality of cheating, lying, or deceiving someone. The fraudulence of an election might trigger a recount, or even an entirely new election. Fraudulence is telling lies or hoaxing people in some way. adorable Inspiring great affection or delight. "I have four adorable Siamese cats" adore Love and respect (someone) deeply. "he adored his mother" earnest Resulting from or showing sincere and intense conviction. vestigial Forming a very small remnant of something that was once greater or more noticeable. "he felt a vestigial flicker of anger from last night" Vestigiality The retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of the ancestral function in a given species. Assessment of the vestigiality must generally rely on comparison with homologous features in related species. addle-brain A foolish or dull-witted person. obstreperous Noisy and difficult to control. "the boy is cocky and obstreperous" solipsism The philosophical idea that only one's mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological position, solipsism holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure; the external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist outside the mind. The view or theory that the self is all that can be known to exist. The quality of being self-centred or selfish. venerated Regard with great respect; revere. "one of the most venerated actors" blustery (of weather) characterized by strong winds. "a gusty, blustery day" (of a wind) blowing in strong gusts. "a blustery wind was sending flurries of rain against the window" eponymous (of a person) giving their name to something. "the eponymous hero of the novel" (of a thing) named after a particular person or group. "their eponymous debut LP" pretence An attempt to make something that is not the case appear true. "his anger is masked by a pretence that all is well" Subduction A geological process in which oceanic lithosphere is recycled into the Earth's mantle at convergent boundaries. Where the oceanic lithosphere of a tectonic plate converges with the less dense lithosphere of a second plate, the heavier plate dives beneath the second plate and sinks into the mantle. dinky (of an object or place) attractively small and neat. "a dinky little restaurant" subterfuge Deceit used in order to achieve one's goal. "he had to use subterfuge and bluff on many occasions" garner Gather or collect (something, especially information or approval). "the police struggled to garner sufficient evidence" blackball Reject (a candidate applying to become a member of a private club), typically by means of a secret ballot. "her husband was blackballed when he tried to join the Country Club" malign Speak about (someone) in a spitefully critical manner. "don't you dare malign her in my presence" "you must never malign a man". ravished Fill (someone) with intense delight; enrapture. "ravished by a sunny afternoon, she had agreed without even thinking" sanguine Optimistic or positive, especially in an apparently bad or difficult situation. "he is sanguine about prospects for the global economy" A blood-red colour. vapid Offering nothing that is stimulating or challenging; bland. "tuneful but vapid musical comedies" abate (of something unpleasant or severe) become less intense or widespread. unabated Not abated. Being at full strength or force. portend portended Be a sign or warning that (something, especially something momentous or calamitous) is likely to happen. Foreshadow. unfettered Unrestrained or uninhibited. "unfettered artistic genius" aphelion The point in the orbit of an object where it is farthest from the Sun. The point in orbit where an object is nearest to the sun is called the perihelion. The word aphelion derives from the Greek words, apo meaning away, off, apart and Helios. Apsis Denotes either of the two extreme points in the orbit of a planetary body about its primary body. The plural term, "apsides," usually implies both apsis points; apsides can also refer to the distance of the extreme range of an object orbiting a host body. contemptible Despicable, pitiable, sorry, scurvy mean arousing or deserving scorn. Contemptible may imply any quality provoking scorn or a low standing in any scale of values. a contemptible liar despicable may imply utter worthlessness and usually suggests arousing an attitude of moral indignation. categorically In a way that is unambiguously explicit and direct. "the rules state categorically, 'No Violence'" candour candor The quality of being open and honest; frankness. "a man of refreshing candour" beguiling Charming or enchanting, often in a deceptive way. "a beguiling mixture of English, French, and Italian" ratify Sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid. "both countries were due to ratify the treaty by the end of the year" smidgen A small amount of something. "add a smidgen of cayenne" "a smidgen bit lower" Quantitative easing A monetary policy whereby a central bank purchases at scale government bonds or other financial assets in order to inject money into the economy to expand economic activity. talisman An object, typically an inscribed ring or stone, that is thought to have magic powers and to bring good luck. "those rings, so fresh and gleaming, were their talismans" insurrection A violent uprising against an authority or government. "the insurrection was savagely put down" barycenter barycentre [astronomy] The center of mass of two or more bodies that orbit one another and is the point about which the bodies orbit. It is an important concept in fields such as astronomy and astrophysics. transcredible Adj. possibly credible or plausible. Believable, but possibly exaggerated. My uncle's fishing stories are always transcredible; sometimes the fish are described as larger than they really are! by ZapBrannigan January 18, 2011 https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=transcredible wily Skilled at gaining an advantage, especially deceitfully. "his wily opponents" veritable Used for emphasis, often to qualify a metaphor. "the early 1970s witnessed a veritable price explosion" "it's a veritable garden of eden" bipartisan Involving the agreement or cooperation of two political parties that usually oppose each other's policies. "the reforms received considerable bipartisan approval" egotism The fact of being excessively conceited or absorbed in oneself. "in his arrogance and egotism, he underestimated Gill" pertinent Relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite. "This is becoming a pertinent enough issue that we have decided to..." apposite Apt in the circumstances or in relation to something. "an apposite quotation" dawdle Waste time; be slow. "she mustn't dawdle—she had to make the call now" jaunty Having or expressing a lively, cheerful, and self-confident manner. "there was no mistaking that jaunty walk" corollary [noun] A proposition that follows from (and is often appended to) one already proved. [adjective] Forming a proposition that follows from one already proved. platitudes A remark or statement, especially one with a moral content, that has been used too often to be interesting or thoughtful. "he masks his disdain for her with platitudes about how she should believe in herself more" rapacious aggressively greedy or grasping. "rapacious landlords" "rapacious intellect" impetuous Acting or done quickly and without thought or care. "she might live to rue this impetuous decision" Moving forcefully or rapidly. "an impetuous but controlled flow of water" at loggerheads In or into a state of quarrelsome disagreement. abated abatable Made less extreme or serious. qualifiable 1. Capable of qualifying or being qualified. 2. Able to be modified, limited or restricted (to become qualified). Capable of being qualified; abatable; modifiable. mosey Walk or move in a leisurely manner. "we decided to mosey on up to Montgomery" A leisurely walk or drive. "I'll just have a mosey round" truculent Eager or quick to argue or fight; aggressively defiant. "the truculent attitude of farmers to cheaper imports" curmudgeonly (especially of an old person) bad-tempered and negative. "a curmudgeonly old man" tarnish tarnishes Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction. Tarnish does not always result from the sole effects of oxygen in the air. https://youtu.be/fmaZdEq-Xzs?t=1114 Inshallah Insha'Allah In sha Allah An Arabic language expression meaning "if God wills" or "God willing". The term is mentioned in the Quran and Muslims are commanded to use it when speaking on future events, so it is also used to fulfill this Quranic command. repudiation repudiated repudiate Refuse to accept or be associated with. Rejection of a proposal or idea. "the repudiation of reformist policies" Denial of the truth or validity of something. proclivities A tendency to choose or do something regularly; an inclination or predisposition towards a particular thing. "a proclivity for hard work" indoctrination The process of teaching a person or group to accept a set of beliefs uncritically. "I would never subject children to religious indoctrination" contravention An action which offends against a law, treaty, or other ruling. "the publishing of misleading advertisements was a contravention of the Act" doublethink [George Orwell's 1984] A process of indoctrination whereby the subject is expected to simultaneously accept two mutually contradictory beliefs as correct, often in contravention to one's own memories or sense of reality. Doublethink is related to, but differs from, hypocrisy. “To know and not to know, to be conscious of complete truthfulness while telling carefully constructed lies, to hold simultaneously two opinions which cancelled out, knowing them to be contradictory and believing in both of them, to use logic against logic, to repudiate morality while laying claim to it, to believe that democracy was impossible and that the Party was the guardian of democracy, to forget whatever it was necessary to forget, then to draw it back into memory again at the moment when it was needed, and then promptly to forget it again, and above all, to apply the same process to the process itself—that was the ultimate subtlety: consciously to induce unconsciousness, and then, once again, to become unconscious of the act of hypnosis you had just performed. Even to understand the word—doublethink—involved the use of doublethink.” Four examples of doublethink used throughout 1984 include the slogans: - War is Peace, - Freedom is Slavery, - Ignorance is Strength, and - 2 + 2 = 5. Memory hole [George Orwell's 1984] A small chute leading to a large incinerator. Anything that needed to be wiped from the public record (embarrassing documents, photographs, transcripts) would be sent into the memory hole. As a clerk in the Records Department of the Ministry of Truth, Winston Smith often has to throw things into the memory hole to revise history and keep current with the ever-evolving Party dogma. Newspeak [George Orwell's 1984] A purposefully ambiguous and confusing language with restricted grammar and limited vocabulary used in Oceania, according or Orwell, “to diminish the range of thought.” For example, in newspeak, the term plusgood had replaced words better and great. Thinkpol [George Orwell's 1984] A newspeak word to describe the secret police of Oceania, who are responsible for the detection, prosecution, and elimination of unspoken beliefs and doubts that contradict the Party. They use audio-visual surveillance via the telescreens and offender profiling to monitor the populace. Unperson [George Orwell's 1984] Someone whose existence has been excised from the public and private memory in Oceania. beeline He made a beeline for the refreshments. In this expression, beeline means “the shortest distance between two points,” alluding to the route of worker bees bringing nectar and pollen back to the hive. supplant Supersede and replace. heraldry A broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree. dotard An old person, especially one who has become physically weak or whose mental faculties have declined. gibbet Any instrument of public execution, but gibbeting refers to the use of a gallows- type structure from which the dead or dying bodies of criminals were hanged on public display to deter other existing or potential criminals hewing hewn [woodworking] The process of converting a log from its rounded natural form into lumber with more or less flat surfaces using primarily an axe. It is an ancient method, and before the advent of the industrial-era type of sawmills, it was a standard way of squaring up wooden beams for timber framing. mulligan A stew made from odds and ends of food. (in informal golf) an extra stroke allowed after a poor shot, not counted on the scorecard. A second chance to perform an action, usually after the first chance went wrong through bad luck or a blunder. Its best-known meaning is in golf, whereby a player is informally allowed to replay a stroke, even though this is against the formal rules of golf. do one's bidding To do what someone else wants or has requested, to the point of servitude. isotropic Uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos and tropos. Precise definitions depend on the subject area. Exceptions, or inequalities, are frequently indicated by the prefix an, hence anisotropy rain check 1. SINGULAR NOUN If you say you will take a rain check on an offer or suggestion, you mean that you do not want to accept it now, but you might accept it at another time. I was planning to ask you in for a brandy, but if you want to take a rain check, that's fine. Can I take a rain check on that? 2. COUNTABLE NOUN A rain check is a free ticket that is given to people when an outdoor game or event is stopped because of rain or bad weather, so that they can go to it when it is held again. beguile Charm or enchant (someone), often in a deceptive way. "he beguiled the voters with his good looks" disinformation False or misleading information that is spread deliberately to deceive. This is a subset of misinformation. The English word disinformation is a loan translation of the Russian dezinformatsiya, derived from the title of a KGB black propaganda department. epaulette An ornamental shoulder piece on an item of clothing, especially on the coat or jacket of a military uniform. "an army greatcoat with fancy epaulettes and brass buttons" polysemy The capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy—or homophony—which is an accidental similarity between two words; while homonymy is often a mere linguistic coincidence, polysemy is not. astuteness The ability to penetrate deeply into ideas. sycophant An insincere flatterer. Used to refer to someone practicing sycophancy. The word has its origin in the legal system of Classical Athens. sycophancy Obsequious behaviour towards someone important in order to gain advantage. "your fawning sycophancy is nauseating" fawning Displaying exaggerated flattery or affection; obsequious. "fawning adoration" obsequious Obedient or attentive to an excessive or servile degree. "they were served by obsequious waiters" sonder https://www.dictionaryofobscuresorrows.com/post/23536922667/sonder The realization that each random passerby is living a life as vivid and complex as your own—populated with their own ambitions, friends, routines, worries and inherited craziness—an epic story that continues invisibly around you like an anthill sprawling deep underground, with elaborate passageways to thousands of other lives that you’ll never know existed, in which you might appear only once, as an extra sipping coffee in the background, as a blur of traffic passing on the highway, as a lighted window at dusk. immemorial times immemorial time immemorial Originating in the distant past; very old. "an immemorial custom" inflection A change in the form of a word (typically the ending) to express a grammatical function or attribute such as tense, mood, person, number, case, and gender. "a set of word forms differing only in respect of inflections" escapade An act or incident involving excitement, daring, or adventure. "he told of their escapade with a ‘borrowed’ truck" "sordid escapades" reticent Not revealing one's thoughts or feelings readily. "she was extremely reticent about her personal affairs" restless Unable to rest or relax as a result of anxiety or boredom. "the audience grew restless and inattentive" elision elided [linguistics] An elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds in a word or phrase. The word elision is frequently used in linguistic description of living languages, and deletion is often used in historical linguistics for a historical sound change. (of a sound or syllable) omitted when speaking. "elided consonants" periphery The external boundary of any surface or area. The external surface of a body. The edge or outskirts, as of a city or urban area. The relatively minor, irrelevant, or superficial aspects of the subject in question: The preliminary research did not, of course, take me beyond the periphery of my problem. theocracy A system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god. "his ambition is to lead a worldwide theocracy" The commonwealth of Israel from the time of Moses until the election of Saul as king. isolationism isolationist A category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. succession A number of people or things of a similar kind following one after the other. "she had been secretary to a succession of board directors" The action or process of inheriting a title, office, property, etc. "the new king was already elderly at the time of his succession" negentropy Neverse entropy. It means things becoming more in order. By 'order' is meant organisation, structure and function: the opposite of randomness or chaos. One example of negentropy is a star system such as the Solar System. Another example is life. "Negentropy" (with a hard g) is the export of entropy from system A to system B in order to keep system A in order. autotelic An autotelic is someone or something that has a purpose in, and not apart from, itself. tendentious Expressing or intending to promote a particular cause or point of view, especially a controversial one. "a tendentious reading of history" attest Provide or serve as clear evidence of. "I cannot attest to..." "his status is attested by his becoming an alderman" groupthink A psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. populism A political approach that strives to appeal to ordinary people who feel that their concerns are disregarded by established elite groups. nebulous (of a concept) vague or ill-defined. "nebulous concepts like quality of life" eminate Give out or emit (a feeling, quality, or sensation). "he emanated a powerful brooding air" "data that you eminate" recourse The use of (someone or something) as a source of help in a difficult situation. "a means of solving disputes without recourse to courts of law" "you have legal recourse" postulate A thing suggested or assumed as true as the basis for reasoning, discussion, or belief. "perhaps the postulate of Babylonian influence on Greek astronomy is incorrect" pejorative Expressing contempt or disapproval. "permissiveness is used almost universally as a pejorative term" incorrigible (of a person or their behaviour) not able to be changed or reformed. "she's an incorrigible flirt" compunction A feeling of guilt or moral scruple that prevents or follows the doing of something bad. "they used their tanks without compunction" uncollateralized Not collateralized. collateralization The use of a valuable asset to secure a loan. If the borrower defaults on the loan, the lender may seize the asset and sell it to offset the loss. Collateralization of assets gives lenders a sufficient level of reassurance against default risk. ere [preposition] Before (a specified time). "we hope you will return ere long" [conjunction] "I was driven for some half mile ere we stopped" hubris Excessive pride or self-confidence. "the self-assured hubris among economists was shaken in the late 1980s" trending Currently popular or widely discussed online, especially on social media websites. "today's top trending topics" moniker A name. "his real moniker is Dave Kennedy" "he got his moniker by..." sepulchral Relating to a tomb or interment. "sepulchral monuments" Gloomy; dismal. "a speech delivered in sepulchral tones" squall A loud cry. "he emitted a short mournful squall" A sudden violent gust of wind or localized storm, especially one bringing rain, snow, or sleet. "low clouds and squalls of driving rain" pall A dark cloud of smoke, dust, etc. "a pall of black smoke hung over the quarry" "an unexpected death would cast a slight pall on our meeting" credulity Credulity is a person's willingness or ability to believe that a statement is true, especially on minimal or uncertain evidence. Credulity is not necessarily a belief in something that may be false: the subject of the belief may even be correct, but a credulous person will believe it without good evidence. "it would strain credulity at that" keeping mum mum Mum is an adjective that means keeping quiet. It can also be used by itself to mean Be quiet! This sense of mum is especially used in the expressions keep mum and mum's the word. "he was mum on that" cretinous Foolish or stupid. Physically deformed and having learning difficulties as a result of congenital thyroid deficiency. "cretinous world of crypto traders" coaxing Persistent gentle persuasion. "he refused to return to the game despite the coaxing of his teammates" Gently and persistently persuasive. "they speak in a coaxing manner when they want something" doldrums A state or period of stagnation or depression. "the mortgage market has been in the doldrums for three years" lummox A clumsy, stupid person. "watch it, you great lummox!" homunculus A very small human or humanoid creature. calamy calumnies A false statement maliciously made to injure another's reputation. The utterance of maliciously false statements; slander. slander and calamy contrite Feeling or expressing remorse at the recognition that one has done wrong. "a contrite tone" "humble and contrite" collocation [corpus linguistics] A collocation is a series of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. [phraseology] A sub-type of phraseme. An example of a phraseological collocation, as propounded by Michael Halliday, is the expression strong tea. [linguistics] The habitual juxtaposition of a particular word with another word or words with a frequency greater than chance. "the words have a similar range of collocation" cack-handed [informal british] Inept; clumsy. "a great song ruined by cack-handed production" "cack-handed deck apes" broadside A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their coordinated fire in naval warfare. From the 16th century until the early decades of the steamship, vessels had rows of guns set in each side of the hull. Firing all guns on one side of the ship became known as a "broadside". untempered Not moderated or lessened by anything. "the products of a technological mastery untempered by political imagination" enfranchise Give the right to vote to. surreptitiously In a way that attempts to avoid notice or attention; secretively. "Mary surreptitiously slipped from the room" exfiltrating Withdraw (troops or spies) surreptitiously, especially from a dangerous situation. "US special forces agents have all been exfiltrated from Iran" paltry A paltry amount of money or of something else is one that you consider to be very small. pestilential Annoying. "what a pestilential man!" "pestilential war" ballyhoo ballyhooed Praise or publicize extravagantly. elegy A poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead. temper tempering Act as a neutralizing or counterbalancing force to (something). "their idealism is tempered with realism" pithy (of language or style) terse and vigorously expressive. "his characteristically pithy comments" mistral A strong, cold north-westerly wind that blows through the Rhône valley and southern France into the Mediterranean, mainly in winter. beholden Owing thanks or having a duty to someone in return for help or a service. "I don't like to be beholden to anybody" syllogism An instance of a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from two given or assumed propositions (premises); a common or middle term is present in the two premises but not in the conclusion, which may be invalid (e.g. all dogs are animals; all animals have four legs; therefore all dogs have four legs ). metonymy A figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept. For example, instead of referring to businessmen as businessmen, using metonymy you might refer to them as suits. vaunted Praised or boasted about, especially in an excessive way. "they have utterly eclipsed their vaunted American rivals" glib (of words or a speaker) fluent but insincere and shallow. procurer A person who causes someone to do something or something to happen. puritanism Seven months after gaming was outlawed, the Massachusetts Puritans decided to punish adultery with death (though the death penalty was rare). They banned fancy clothing, living with Indians and smoking in public. Missing Sunday services would land you in the stocks. Celebrating Christmas would cost you five shillings. puritan You describe someone as a puritan when they live according to strict moral or religious principles, especially when they disapprove of physical pleasures. appropriation An act or instance of appropriating something. Something that has been appropriated specifically : money set aside by formal action for a specific use the city's appropriation for schools. forthcoming Ready or made available when wanted or needed. dogma A principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true. "the dogmas of faith" melee A confused fight or scuffle. "several people were hurt in the melee" A confused crowd of people. "the melee of people that were always thronging the streets" enigmatic Difficult to interpret or understand; mysterious. "he took the money with an enigmatic smile" fathom Understand (a difficult problem or an enigmatic person) after much thought. "the locals could not fathom out the reason behind his new-found prosperity" eschewed Deliberately avoid using; abstain from. athazagoraphobia The fear of forgetting, being forgotten or ignored. factuality The quality of being actual or factual: actuality, fact, factualness, reality, truth. semiosis sign process Any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including the production of meaning. banality The fact or condition of being banal; unoriginality. "there is an essential banality to the story he tells" dearth Scarcity that makes dear (expensive). An inadequate supply. "A dearth of evidence." "Dearth of legitimacy." efficacious (of something inanimate or abstract) successful in producing a desired or intended result; effective. orrery A mechanical model of the Solar System that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons, usually according to the heliocentric model. expeditiously With speed and efficiency. "the directors will move expeditiously to reach a conclusion" farcical Relating to or resembling farce, especially because of absurd or ridiculous aspects. "he considered the whole idea farcical" subsist subsisting Maintain or support oneself, especially at a minimal level. "he subsisted on welfare and casual labour" predilection A preference or special liking for something; a bias in favour of something. "my predilection for Asian food" scion A descendant or heir of a person of high social standing. "Apple’s no better than anyone else when it comes to UX They used to be held up as some sort of scion of user-interface design, but one particular component has just cost my partner a lot of message history data." gobbledygook Language that is meaningless or is made unintelligible by excessive use of technical terms. "reams of financial gobbledygook" peaceably Without violence or war, or in a peaceful way: We want the two states to exist peaceably side by side. They are peaceably exercising their right of free speech. nevertheless In spite of that; notwithstanding; all the same. "statements which, although literally true, are nevertheless misleading" deflationary Characterized by or tending to cause economic deflation. 'the deflationary effect of higher taxes' supple Bending and moving easily and gracefully; flexible. "her supple fingers" supernumerary Present in excess of the normal or requisite number. A supernumerary person or thing. antipathy Antipathy is a voluntary or involuntary dislike for something or somebody, the opposite of sympathy. While antipathy may be induced by experience, it sometimes exists without a rational cause-and-effect explanation being present to the individuals involved. presupposes Require as a precondition of possibility or coherence. "their original prediction presupposed a universe only three billion years old" "...that presupposes it..." interrogative interrogative clause An interrogative clause is a clause whose form is typically associated with question-like meanings. For instance, the English sentence "Is Hannah sick?" has interrogative syntax which distinguishes it from its declarative counterpart "Hannah is coming". malefic Causing or capable of causing harm or destruction, especially by supernatural means. phantasm A figment of the imagination; an illusion or apparition. aleatory Depending on the throw of a dice or on chance; random. Relating to luck and especially to bad luck. honorific (of an office, title or position) [A title] given as a mark of respect, but having few or no duties. recapitulate recapitulating Summarize and state again the main points. "He began to recapitulate his argument with care" pretext A pretext is an excuse to do something or say something that is not accurate. Pretexts may be based on a half-truth or developed in the context of a misleading fabrication. Pretexts have been used to conceal the true purpose or rationale behind actions and words. apotheosis The highest point in the development of something; a culmination or climax. "his appearance as Hamlet was the apotheosis of his career" The glorification of a subject to divine level and most commonly, the treatment of a human like a god. Deification. cisgender A cisgender person is someone whose gender identity matches their sex assigned at birth. For example, someone who identifies as a woman and was identified as female at birth is a cisgender woman. The word cisgender is the antonym of transgender. Related terms include cissexism and cisnormativity cishet “Cishet” means someone is both cisgender and heterosexual. It could also mean both cisgender and heteroromantic. In other words, a cishet person identifies as the gender they were assigned at birth, and they're attracted to people of the opposite gender. inveterate Having a particular habit, activity, or interest that is long-established and unlikely to change. "an inveterate gambler" synonyms: ingrained, deep-seated, deep-rooted, deep-set, entrenched, established, long-established, congenital, ineradicable, incurable, irredeemable Inveterate Firmly established by long persistence the inveterate tendency to overlook the obvious. acquiescence The reluctant acceptance of something without protest. discursive Moving from topic to topic without order : rambling gave a discursive lecture discursive prose. Proceeding coherently from topic to topic. In philosophy: Marked by a method of resolving complex expressions into simpler or more basic ones. Marked by analytical reasoning. prediscursive Kristeva's theory of abjection provides us with an account of a 'pre-discursive' (that is, a bodily, affective, pre-symbolic) racism, a form of racism that 'comes before words', and that is routed through the logics of the body and its anxieties of distinction, separation and survival. triage triaging The process of determining the priority of patients' treatments by the severity of their condition or likelihood of recovery with and without treatment. snow Mislead or charm (someone) with elaborate and insincere words. "they would snow the public into believing that all was well" "she'll expose you, when she snows you" proctor proctoring verb Invigilate (an examination). "18% of the faculty reported that graduate assistants frequently proctored exams" invigilate Supervise candidates during an examination. "during exam week, all she had to do was invigilate" alacrity Brisk and cheerful readiness. 'she accepted the invitation with alacrity' synonyms: eagerness, willingness, readiness, enthusiasm, ardour, fervour, keenness, joyousness, liveliness, zeal, promptness, haste, briskness, swiftness, dispatch, speed embezzlement Theft or misappropriation of funds placed in one's trust or belonging to one's employer. "charges of fraud and embezzlement" scrutinizing Examine or inspect closely and thoroughly. dissuaded dissuade /dswed/ verb persuade (someone) not to take a particular course of action. 'his friends tried to dissuade him from flying' synonyms: discourage, deter, prevent, disincline, turn aside, divert, sidetrack, talk out of, persuade against, persuade not to, argue out of, put off, stop, scare off, warn off, advise against, urge against, advise/urge not to, caution against, expostulate against, dehort lectern A tall stand with a sloping top to hold a book or notes, from which someone, typically a preacher or lecturer, can read while standing up. "Lovell, who received sustained applause and a standing ovation as he approached the lectern to begin his remarks, said he began to question his own existence, asking, \"How do I fit into what I see?\"" grassroots The most basic level of an activity or organization. goad The goad is a traditional farming implement, used to spur or guide livestock, usually oxen, which are pulling a plough or a cart; used also to round up cattle. It is a type of long stick with a pointed end, also known as the cattle prod. The word is from Middle English gode, from Old English gād. "not meant as a goad to you" goading Provoke or annoy (someone) so as to stimulate an action or reaction. shill shilled shilling Ensnared, enticed, seduced, decoyed. "they've been shilled to believe" noun A person who poses as a customer in order to decoy others into participating, as at a gambling house, auction, confidence game, etc. Act or work as a shill. "your husband in the crowd could shill for you" bristliness "Stallman... is a hard man to like. He is driven, often impatient. His anger can flare at friend as easily as foe. He is uncompromising and persistent; patient in both." Richard Stallman has an often extreme bristliness about him and an intense propensity for confrontation, which can repel many. propensity An inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way. regift Give (a gift one has received) to someone else. absolution [#Christianity] A pronouncement of remission (forgiveness) of sins to the penitent. burnished (especially of metal) polished by rubbing. "highly burnished armour" socialisation [#sociology] https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter5-socialization/ How we learn the norms and beliefs of our society. From our earliest family and play experiences, we are made aware of societal values and expectations. The process of people following the norms and trends created in a society. ephemeral Lasting for a very short time. "fashions are ephemeral: new ones regularly drive out the old" inhibition A feeling that makes one self-conscious and unable to act in a relaxed and natural way. "the children, at first shy, soon lost their inhibitions" zeitgeist "To be fair, this is actually pretty close to the zeitgeist during Star Wars' original release." concession The act of giving up something or doing something in order to reach agreement. The act of admitting that you have been defeated in a contest. Something that you allow or do to end a conflict or reach an agreement. extralegal Beyond the reach of the government. flustered Agitated or confused. "a flustered commuter" pilfer Steal (typically things of relatively little value). "A pernicious agricultural pest owes some of its success to a gene pilfered from its plant host millions of years ago." planned obsolescence stipend A fixed regular sum paid as a salary or as expenses to a clergyman, teacher, or public official. regale Entertain or amuse (someone) with talk. "he regaled her with a colourful account of that afternoon's meeting" amnesty Grant an official pardon to. An official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offenses. exhume Dig out (something buried, especially a corpse) from the ground. "the bodies were exhumed on the orders of a judge" maced Pepper sprayed. "Stop or you'll get maced again." stipulate To make an agreement or covenant to do or forbear something : contract. To demand an express term in an agreement. To specify as a condition or requirement (as of an agreement or offer). recess A brief period for relaxation between work periods The students play ball at recess. A secret or hidden place. consign consigned Deliver (something) to a person's keeping. "he consigned three paintings to Sotheby's" coalesce Come together to form one mass or whole. "the puddles had coalesced into shallow streams" Combine (elements) in a mass or whole. "his idea served to coalesce all that happened into one connected whole" prognostications The action of foretelling or prophesying future events. abductive instinct abductive reasoning deduction vs induction vs adbduction deductive vs inductive vs adbductive https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/deduction-vs-induction-vs-abduction deduction deductive reasoning Making an inference based on widely accepted facts or premises. If a beverage is defined as "drinkable through a straw," one could use deduction to determine soup to be a beverage. induction inductive reasoning Making an inference based on an observation, often of a sample. You can induce that the soup is tasty if you observe all of your friends consuming it. abduction abductive reasoning Making a probable conclusion from what you know. If you see an abandoned bowl of hot soup on the table, you can use abduction to conclude the owner of the soup is likely returning soon. paunchy Having a large or protruding belly. iniquity Immoral or grossly unfair behavior. glum Adjective looking or feeling dejected; morose. (of a person) looking unhappy, gloomy, or sullen. caricature A picture, description, or imitation of a person in which certain striking characteristics are exaggerated in order to create a comic or grotesque effect. "a crude caricature of the Prime Minister" cossim As to give way/lose ground; bending/turning in; (turned) backwards; obliquely; panacea A solution or remedy for all difficulties or diseases. wary Feeling or showing caution about possible dangers or problems. "dogs which have been mistreated often remain very wary of strangers" interdisciplinary Relating to more than one branch of knowledge. discursive Digressing from subject to subject. "children's discursive skills" ethnographic Relating to the scientific description of peoples and cultures with their customs, habits, and mutual differences. complexify https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261687570_From_Observation_to_Transcription_and_Back_Theory_Practice_and_Interpretation_in_the_Analysis_of_Children's_Naturally_Occurring_Discourse busyness The state or condition of having a great deal to do. "it's easy to get caught up in the busyness of life". The quality of being full of activity. "the busyness and noise of the street". The quality of being excessively detailed or decorated. "the busyness of the interior design". ideating Form an idea of; imagine or conceive. "he is part of a team that ideates branding strategies" recant Say that one no longer holds an opinion or belief, especially one considered heretical. "heretics were burned if they would not recant" muse A person who serves as an artist's inspiration. tenacity The quality or fact of being able to grip something firmly; grip. "the sheer tenacity of the limpet" flummoxed bewildered or perplexed. "he became flummoxed and speechless" vertiginous Extremely high or steep. "vertiginous drops to the valleys below" Relating to or affected by vertigo. Causing or characterized by a sensation of whirling and a feeling of instability. deign Do something that one considers to be beneath one's dignity. "she did not deign to answer the maid's question" Condescend to give (something). "he had deigned an apology" "he deigns to visit us" staccato Performed with each note sharply detached or separated from the others. "a staccato rhythm" With each note sharply detached or separated from the others. "I find arpeggio playing is easily done staccato" extempore Spoken or done without preparation. Said "extempouree". subterfuge Deceit used in order to achieve one's goal. "he had to use subterfuge and bluff on many occasions" devil-may-care [adjective] Cheerful and reckless. "light-hearted, devil-may-care young pilots" construed Interpreted; construed. "that walking stick could be construed as a dangerous weapon" mawkishness The quality or condition of being affectedly or overly emotional: bathos, maudlinism, sentimentalism, sentimentality. "Forgive my mawkishness" have the chops If you want to achieve fame and glory by being amazing at something, you have to have great skill—or chops. Chops is slang for the jaws or mouth. exonerate (of an official body) absolve (someone) from blame for a fault or wrongdoing. "an inquiry exonerated those involved" admonish Warn or reprimand someone firmly. "she admonished me for appearing at breakfast unshaven" incursion An invasion or attack, especially a sudden or brief one. "incursions into enemy territory" humanitarian Concerned with or seeking to promote human welfare. "groups sending humanitarian aid" cronyism The appointment of friends and associates to positions of authority, without proper regard to their qualifications. procurement The process of finding and agreeing to terms, and acquiring goods, services, or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process. Procurement generally involves making buying decisions under conditions of scarcity. abrogation The repeal or abolition of a law, right, or agreement. pertinent Relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite. "she asked me a lot of very pertinent questions" loquacious Tending to talk a great deal; talkative. "never loquacious, Sarah was now totally lost for words" mimetic The word is Greek and means “imitation” (though in the sense of “re-presentation” rather than of “copying”). Plato and Aristotle spoke of mimesis as the re-presentation of nature. Relating to, constituting, or habitually practising mimesis. "mimetic patterns in butterflies" mimesis A term used in literary criticism and philosophy that carries a wide range of meanings, including imitatio, imitation, nonsensuous similarity, receptivity, representation, mimicry, the act of expression, the act of resembling, and the presentation of the self. incontrovertible Not able to be denied or disputed. "incontrovertible proof" untenable (especially of a position or view) not able to be maintained or defended against attack or objection. "this argument is clearly untenable" summarily In a summary manner; without the customary formalities. "she was summarily dismissed" agog Very eager or curious to hear or see something. "I'm all agog" aghast Filled with horror or shock. "she winced, aghast at his cruelty" incumbent Necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility. bungled (of a task) carried out clumsily or incompetently. "a bungled bank raid" gratuitous Done without good reason; uncalled for. "gratuitous violence" rife (especially of something undesirable) of common occurrence; widespread. "male chauvinism was rife in medicine" chauvinism The irrational belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people, who are seen as strong and virtuous, while others are considered weak, unworthy or inferior. It can be described as a form of extreme patriotism and nationalism, a fervent faith in national excellence and glory. male chauvinism Male prejudice against women; the belief that men are superior in terms of ability, intelligence, etc. "a bastion of male chauvinism" pensive Engaged in, involving, or reflecting deep or serious thought. "a pensive mood" peccadillos A small, relatively unimportant offense or sin. misogynist A person who dislikes, despises, or is strongly prejudiced against women. persevere Continue in a course of action even in the face of difficulty or with little or no indication of success. "his family persevered with his treatment" gumption Shrewd or spirited initiative and resourcefulness. "the president would hire almost any young man who had the gumption to ask for a job" internment The state of being confined as a prisoner, especially for political or military reasons. "he was threatened with internment in a concentration camp" wanton (of a cruel or violent action) deliberate and unprovoked. "sheer wanton vandalism" licentious licentiousness A throwing off of sexual restraint; lewd character or behavior: The Hays Code tried to stamp out all lust and licentiousness in American film. Wanton disregard or transgression of laws, rules, or moral norms: Freedom entails responsibilities, or else it degenerates into licentiousness. minutiae The small, precise, or trivial details of something. contentious Causing or likely to cause an argument; controversial. "a contentious issue" proponent A person who advocates a theory, proposal, or course of action. "a strong proponent of the free market and liberal trade policies" sojourner A person who resides temporarily in a place. pronunciation The way in which a word or a language is spoken. This may refer to generally agreed-upon sequences of sounds used in speaking a given word or language in a specific dialect or simply the way a particular individual speaks a word or language. depressive Causing feelings of severe despondency and dejection. mentorship The guidance provided by a mentor, especially an experienced person in a company or educational institution. "he is revered by his employees for his mentorship and problem-solving qualities" reparation reparations A theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction. In ascetical theology, reparation is the making of amends for insults given to God through sin, either one's own or another's. The response of man is to be reparation through adoration, prayer, and sacrifice. "...to demand reparations from..." raiment Clothing. "ladies clothed in raiment bedecked with jewels" affright Frighten (someone). "ghosts could never affright her" guile Sly or cunning intelligence. "he used all his guile and guts to free himself from the muddle he was in" indignation Anger or annoyance provoked by what is perceived as unfair treatment. "the letter filled Lucy with indignation" bewair Express great regret, sadness, or disappointment about (something). "men will bewail the loss of earlier freedoms" dainty Delicately small and pretty. "a dainty lace handkerchief" Fastidious, especially concerning food. "a dainty appetite" vesture Clothing; dress. "a man garbed in ancient vesture" buttress Provide (a building or structure) with buttresses. "we buttressed the wall as it was showing signs of cracking and collapse" Increase the strength of or justification for; reinforce. "authority was buttressed by religious belief" straddling straddle Sit or stand with one leg on either side of. "he turned the chair round and straddled it" Similar: sit/stand astride bestride bestraddle mount get on Place (one's legs) wide apart. "he shifted his legs, straddling them to keep his balance" Stand, walk, or sit with one's legs wide apart. "the colonel straddled in front of the fire" teleology finality A reason or explanation for something as a function of its end, purpose, or goal, as opposed to as a function of, say, its cause. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as the purpose of a fork to hold food, is called extrinsic. euphemism A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing. "the jargon has given us ‘downsizing’ as a euphemism for cuts" empirical Based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic. "they provided considerable empirical evidence to support their argument" interstitial Of, forming, or occupying interstices. "the interstitial space" An advertisement that appears while a chosen website or page is downloading. empiricism [#philosophy] A theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epistemology, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions. discordant Disagreeing or incongruous. "the operative principle of democracy is a balance of discordant qualities" (of sounds) harsh and jarring because of a lack of harmony. "the singers continued their discordant chanting" irk irked Irritate; annoy. "it irks her to think of the runaround she received" giblets The liver, heart, gizzard, and neck of a chicken or other fowl, usually removed before the bird is cooked, and often used to make gravy, stuffing, or soup. "the giblets of the brain" (deep within) plutocratic Relating to or characterized by government by the wealthy. gambit An act or remark that is calculated to gain an advantage, especially at the outset of a situation. "his resignation was a tactical gambit" (in chess) an opening move in which a player makes a sacrifice, typically of a pawn, for the sake of a compensating advantage. "he tried the dubious Budapest gambit" whipsawed NLG: To be pulled in opposite directions. Cut with a whipsaw. "he was whipsawing lumber" Subject to two difficult situations or opposing pressures at the same time. "the army has been whipsawed by a shrinking budget and a growing pool of recruits" dumb Unable to speak. stupid Lacking in intelligence or exhibiting the quality of having been done by someone lacking in intelligence. paraphrase A restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words. The term itself is derived via Latin paraphrasis from Greek παράφρασις 'additional manner of expression'. The act of paraphrasing is also called "paraphrasis". credence When something is given credence, it is made more believable. But it can also be used like this: Mary talked a lot about the poltergeist in her house. To most, her story had little credence, but I like a good ghost story, and so, decided to believe. "adds credence to" love Four unique forms of love are found in Scripture. They are communicated through four Greek words. - Eros - romantic love - Storge - family love - Philia - brotherly - Agape - God's divine love - unconditional love Christians believe this is the highest type of love, and it is the love that Jesus has for humans. Eight types of love: These are actually dim-witted classificiations, in my opinion, as if not actual thought/discovery was placed into making this list. - Philia - Affectionate Love. Love without romantic attraction and occurs between friends or family members. - Pragma - Enduring Love. - Storge - Familiar Love. - Eros - Romantic Love. - Ludus - Playful Love. - Mania - Obsessive Love. - Philautia - Self Love. - Agape - Selfless Love. denigrated Criticize unfairly; disparage. fortitude Courage in pain or adversity. "she endured her illness with great fortitude" microcosm A miniature world or a small community that is a replica of a larger one. defencelessly In a defenceless manner; without being able to defend oneself. "the defenceless animal was killed" macabre Gruesomely or disgustingly tragic. "macabre tales of death and destruction" lugubrious NLG: Expressing grief; mournful. doleful NLG: Expressing or causing sorrow or regret; mournful. gloomy (of weather) overcast or dull. "a gloomy day" sombre Having or suggesting a dark or gloomy quality. "a sombre mood"; "a dark and brooding figure" acuity Mental sharpness; quickness of mind. apologists A person who offers an argument in defence of something controversial. "critics said he was an apologist for colonialism" borking Obstruct (someone, especially a candidate for public office) by systematically defaming or vilifying them. NLG: (of a person or their work) subject to harsh criticism or derision. "the borking of the President in the press" teleological PHILOSOPHY Relating to or involving the explanation of phenomena in terms of the purpose they serve rather than of the cause by which they arise. "teleological narratives of progress" THEOLOGY Relating to the doctrine of design and purpose in the material world. "a teleological view of nature" NLG: Of or relating to the philosophical doctrine of teleology, which is the idea that some things have a purpose or goal. semaphore A system of sending messages by holding the arms or two flags or poles in certain positions according to an alphabetic code. "In a world where we semaphore our successes to each other at every possible opportunity..." japed Say or do something in jest or mockery. slight slights Insult (someone) by treating or speaking of them without proper respect or attention. "he was desperate not to slight a guest" attribution NLG: The act of assigning credit or blame to someone or something. asshat A stupid or contemptible person. asshattery The obnoxious behaviour of an asshat. NLG: Obnoxious, rude, or obnoxious behaviour. equivocate Use ambiguous language so as to conceal the truth or avoid committing oneself. "the government have equivocated too often in the past" enmity A state or feeling of active opposition or hostility. "decades of enmity between the two countries" fluctuation An irregular rising and falling in number or amount; a variation. "fluctuations in the yearly values could be caused by a variety of factors" precarity The state of being precarious or uncertain. "the precarity of the housing market" A state of persistent insecurity with regard to employment or income. "growing economic precarity" bereft Deprived of or lacking (something). "her room was stark and bereft of colour" (of a person) sad and lonely, especially through someone's death or departure. "his death in 1990 left her bereft" tryst noun or verb A private romantic rendezvous between lovers. "a moonlight tryst" dasein A German word that means "being there" or "presence" (German: da "there"; sein "to be"), and is often translated into English with the word "existence". It is a fundamental concept in the existential philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Heidegger uses the expression Dasein to refer to the experience of being that is peculiar to human beings. Thus it is a form of being that is aware of and must confront such issues as personhood, mortality and the dilemma or paradox of living in relationship with other humans while being ultimately alone with oneself. milieu A general, overarching attribute that gives context to a physical location or set of occurrences. Essentially, it describes the type of environment in which things happen. A milieu is made up of people, emotions, attitudes, and physical objects - really, anything that is significant to a setting.n paucity The presence of something in only small or insufficient quantities or amounts; scarcity. "a paucity of information" Said "poor-city". makeshift Acting as an interim and temporary measure. "arranging a row of chairs to form a makeshift bed" factory settings stock configuration NLG: A standard range of features or components that are fitted as standard to a car model. indelible (of ink or a pen) making marks that cannot be removed. eschew Deliberately avoid using; abstain from. NLG: To avoid or shun. "he eschewed the use of animal products" affable Friendly, good-natured, or easy to talk to. ingratiate Bring oneself into favour with someone by flattering or trying to please them. "a sycophantic attempt to ingratiate herself with the local aristocracy". "I haven't tried yet to ingratiate myself with that group". abrogate Repeal or do away with (a law, right, or formal agreement). "a proposal to abrogate temporarily the right to strike" Evade (a responsibility or duty). "we believe the board is abrogating its responsibilities to its shareholders" abeyance A state of temporary disuse or suspension. "matters were held in abeyance pending further enquiries" curtail Place restrictions on. Reduce in extent or quantity; impose a restriction on. "civil liberties were further curtailed" Deprive someone of (something). "I that am curtailed of this fair proportion" "savagely curtailing" confluence The junction of two rivers, especially rivers of approximately equal width. NLG: The flowing together of two or more streams. craven Contemptibly lacking in courage; cowardly. "a craven abdication of his moral duty" Lacking the least bit of courage : contemptibly fainthearted ablation Removal or destruction of material from an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes. NLG: The removal of part of a body by cutting, burning, or other means. reciprocity The practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country or organization to another. "the Community intends to start discussions on reciprocity with third countries" "reciprocity pact" virtuosity NLG: The quality of having great technical skill, especially in music. NLG: The quality of being very skilful in a particular activity. grassroots The most basic level of an activity or organization. purport Appear to be or do something, especially falsely. "she is not the person she purports to be" seminal Strongly influencing later developments. "his seminal work on chaos theory" insipid Lacking flavour; weak or tasteless. "mugs of insipid coffee" tantamount Equivalent in seriousness to; virtually the same as. "the resignations were tantamount to an admission of guilt" "is tantamount to" mandate In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative. The concept of a government having a legitimate mandate to govern via the fair winning of a democratic election is a central idea of representative democracy. consequential Following as a result or effect. "a loss of confidence and a consequential withdrawal of funds" Important; significant. "the new congress lacked consequential leaders" abate (of something unpleasant or severe) become less intense or widespread. "the storm suddenly abated" make (something) less intense. "nothing abated his crusading zeal" reduce or remove (a nuisance). "this action would not have been sufficient to abate the odour nuisance" putative Generally considered or reputed to be. accrete grow by accumulation or coalescence. "ice that had accreted grotesquely into stalactites" form (a composite whole) by gradual accumulation. "the collection of art he had accreted was to be sold" (with reference to matter or a body) come or bring together under the influence of gravitation. "the gas will cool and then accrete to the galaxy's core" untenable (especially of a position or view) not able to be maintained or defended against attack or objection. amortise Gradually write off the initial cost of (an asset) over a period. "the vessel's owners could not amortize her high capital costs" Reduce or pay off (a debt) with regular payments. "eighty per cent of the proceeds has been used to amortize the public debt" Transfer (land) to a corporation in mortmain. "lands amortized without licence" reify Make (something abstract) more concrete or real. "these instincts are, in man, reified as verbal constructs" sensibility sensibilities The quality of being able to appreciate and respond to complex emotional or aesthetic influences; sensitivity. "the study of literature leads to a growth of intelligence and sensibility" A quality of delicate sensitivity that makes one liable to be offended or shocked. "the scale of the poverty revealed by the survey shocked people's sensibilities" interstice An intervening space, especially a very small one. incredulity The state of being unwilling or unable to believe something. faddish faddy fad Intensely fashionable for a short time. Being or in accordance with current social fashions. trepidation A feeling of fear or anxiety about something that may happen. "the men set off in fear and trepidation" confer conferred 1 : to bestow from or as if from a position of superiority conferred an honorary degree on her knowing how to read was a gift conferred with manhood— Murray Kempton. 2 : to give (something, such as a property or characteristic) to someone or something a reputation for power will confer power— John Spanier. attestation Evidence or proof of something. "their vocabulary is no attestation to your value as a parent" A declaration that something exists or is the case. "personal attestations and subjective claims only matter so much" The action of being a witness to or formally certifying something. "he failed to prove the attestation of the will by the witness" perforce Used to express necessity or inevitability. subversive Seeking or intended to subvert an established system or institution. "subversive literature" cohort A group of people with a shared characteristic. "a cohort of civil servants patiently drafting legislation" dogmatic Inclined to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true. disabuse disabused Persuade (someone) that an idea or belief is mistaken. "he quickly disabused me of my fanciful notions" orthodoxy Is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion. heracy Any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. attrition Occurs when the workforce dwindles at a company, following a period in which a number of people retire or resign, and are not replaced. A reduction in staff due to attrition is often called a hiring freeze and is seen as a less disruptive way to trim the workforce and reduce payroll than layoffs. exoneration Occurs when the conviction for a crime is reversed, either through demonstration of innocence, a flaw in the conviction, or otherwise. Attempts to exonerate convicts are particularly controversial in death penalty cases, especially where new evidence is put forth after the execution has taken place. sensualist A person devoted to physical, especially sexual, pleasure. "a dedicated sensualist" surmised Suppose that something is true without having evidence to confirm it. "he surmised that something must be wrong" resolute Admirably purposeful, determined, and unwavering. "she was resolute and unswerving" pivotal Of crucial importance in relation to the development or success of something else. "Japan's pivotal role in the world economy" cursory NLG: (of a glance or examination) quick and hasty; not careful. "a cursory glance" noir noire A genre of crime film or fiction characterized by cynicism, fatalism, and moral ambiguity. "his film proved that a Brit could do noir as darkly as any American" a film or novel in the noir genre. You use 'noir' when you are describing a masculine noun, and 'noire' when you describe a feminine noun. The plural forms are 'noirs' for masculine words, and 'noires' for the feminine words. All forms are pronounced identically. "he says he's making a noir" E.g. max payne. dual-use dual-use technology In politics, diplomacy and export control, "dual-use" refers to technology that can be used for both peaceful and military aims. More generally speaking, dual-use can also refer to any technology which can satisfy more than one goal at any given time. excise Cut out surgically. "the precision with which surgeons can excise brain tumours" rescind Revoke, cancel, or repeal (a law, order, or agreement). grassroots Something grassroots is at the most basic level of something, down there in the dirt with the roots of an idea or activity. The grassroots is the most fundamental, basic level of well, grass, but also ideas or political movements. Freedom is a grassroots value of America. astroturfing The deceptive practice of presenting an orchestrated marketing or public relations campaign in the guise of unsolicited comments from members of the public. The practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by grassroots participants. It is a practice intended to give the statements or organizations credibility by withholding information about the source's financial connection. dispassionate Not influenced by strong emotion, and so able to be rational and impartial. "she dealt with life's disasters in a calm, dispassionate way" recourse A source of help in a difficult situation. "surgery may be the only recourse" The use of (someone or something) as a source of help in a difficult situation. "a means of solving disputes without recourse to courts of law" "was my only recourse" unequivocal Leaving no doubt; unambiguous. "an unequivocal answer" unmitigated absolute; unqualified. "the tour had been an unmitigated disaster" gall 1 : brazen boldness coupled with impudent assurance and insolence had the gall to think that he could replace her. 2a : bile especially : bile obtained from an animal and used in the arts or medicine. b : something bitter to endure. c : bitterness of spirit : rancor. "was an act of unmitigated gall" rancor An angry feeling of hatred or dislike for someone who has treated you unfairly. estranged (of a person) no longer close or affectionate to someone; alienated. "Harriet felt more estranged from her daughter than ever" (of a wife or husband) no longer living with their spouse. "his estranged wife"NOTES/glossary.txt
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cat "$NOTES/ws/chemistry/resources/goldbook_vocab.json" | jq -r ".entries[].term" | pa -E colvs https://mullikine.github.io/practical-macros-in-racket-and-how-to-work-with-them.html https://mullikine.github.io/codelingo-vs-linters/main.html https://beautifulracket.com/appendix/glossary.html https://github.com/mullikine/rosie/blob/shane/doc/rpl.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_artificial_intelligence$HOME/notes/watch/ne99laPUxN4/glossary.txt
$HOME/notes/tidbits.txt$HOME/notes/glossary2.txt
$HOME/notes/models.org$HOME/notes/algorithms.org
$HOME/notes/techniques.org$HOME/notes/problog.org
$HOME/notes/correlations.txt$HOME/notes/pathology.txt
$HOME/notes/ws/english/words.txt$HOME/notes/ws/google-drive/BIOC 192 definitions Otago 2014.txt
https://skymind.ai/wiki/thought-vectors
https://skymind.ai/wiki/deep-belief-network
$HOME/notes/ws/lists/functions/tensorflow.txt TODO read and put into glossary readsubs "[[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XUTk3pyHIxY][Conditional Probability, Information, Entropy - YouTube]]" P r e p r o c e s s 预处理 S y s t e m 系统 S h a n e 诗恩 poetry giving An algebra A set of values + a set of operators that those values are closed under and some laws it must obey. discrete time Views values of variables as occurring at distinct, separate "points in time", or equivalently as being unchanged throughout each non-zero region of time ("time period")—that is, time is viewed as a discrete variable. Semantic segmentation Computer Algebra [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_algebra][Computer algebra - Wikipedia]] Distributed Data Pipeline Examples: Spark Flume Kafka t-SNE [[https://distill.pub/2016/misread-tsne/][How to Use t-SNE Effectively]] Graph reduction Implements an efficient version of non-strict evaluation, an evaluation strategy where the arguments to a function are not immediately evaluated. Wikipedia Lexical context In languages with lexical scope (also called static scope), name resolution depends on the location in the source code and the lexical context, which is defined by where the named variable or function is defined. Catenation This is what the word concatenation derives from, and the unix command 'cat'. The bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catenation][Catenation - Wikipedia]] Distributional Hypothesis Words that appear in the same contexts share semantic meaning. vector space [#linear algebra] A space consisting of vectors, together with the associative and commutative operation of addition of vectors, and the associative and distributive operation of multiplication of vectors by scalars. inner product [#linear algebra] Associates each pair of vectors in the vector space with a scalar quantity known as the inner product of the vectors. inner product space [#linear algebra] [vector space] Has an additional structure called an inner product. Cosine similarity A measure of similarity between two non- zero vectors of an inner product space that measures the cosine of the angle between them. The cosine of 0° is 1, and it is less than 1 for any angle in the interval 0, π] radians. Euclidean norm L2 norm Euclidean distance Euclidean metric Pythagorean metric Bee-line. The "ordinary" straight-line distance between two points in Euclidean space. With this distance, Euclidean space becomes a metric space. The associated norm is called L2 norm. Riffle The fancy shuffle thing. [[http://fredhohman.com/card-shuffling/][The Math of Card Shuffling]] You need 7 of them to fully shuffle the deck. Actor model [#computer science] [#erlang] A mathematical model of concurrent computation. Treats "actors" as the universal primitives of concurrent computation. Defines some general rules for how the system's components should behave and interact with each other. The most famous language that uses this model is probably Erlang. Not related to: - Actor-critic [methods] OAuth2 This is basically a way for people to design encrypted interfaces to their software. [[/home/shane/go/src/golang.org/x/oauth2/jira/][oauth2/jira]] [[https://dev.bitly.com/authentication.html][Bitly API Documentation]] Synchronicity Coincidence but not coincidence. But it's not a word which means nothing. If it exists because of the human condition then it should be recognised as a thing. Axiom Postulate A statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.' Euclid's 5th postulate Two lines converge within the area to the side of a 3rd intersecting line where the sum of their interior angles is less than 180 degrees. or. If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side of it taken together less than two right angles, then the two straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which the sum of angles is less than two right angles. [[/home/shane/dump/home/shane/notes2018/ws/math/euclids-5th-postulate.jpg][math/euclids-5th-postulate.jpg]] Lisp Machine Nuance Adding another dimension allows for more nuance. Dimensions [in a data set] Features Predictors Variables Synonyms. Decision Tree A reasonably accessible (though rudimentary) machine learning method. Look at one variable at a time. vim +/"Weighted Neighborhood Scheme" "$HOME/notes/glossary.txt"

Negabinary
[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_base][Negative base - Wikipedia]]

IPC
Instructions per cycle
At descriptive attribute of a CPU.

Smoke test
Preliminary testing to reveal simple
failures severe enough to, for example,
reject a prospective software release

Aragoscope
A type of space telescope that uses
diffraction to advantage, rather than a
impediment.

Aragospot

Proof that photons do not travel like
particles, they travel sort of like waves,
and waves can curve around an object.

It's actually the lense of the light
source. You can add a cross in front of
the light source and you will see this in
the aragospot.

Use a larger disk (than a coin to blot out
the light) and you get more resolution.
Cody uses a jar lid. You don't have to
move the disk further away, only increase
the diameter of the disk, but you have to
move further back until you get an
eclipse-like halo.

Cody could use a metal lid as a lense to
read "Cody's Lab" written on a torch very
far away.

Orbiting rainbow

diffraction limit
The finest detail a light telescope can
give us is with a diffraction limit, which
increases with wavelength.

So infrared has a disadvantage over
visible or ultaviolet light.

However, the diffraction limit gets
smaller with increasing aperture size.

What the James Webb Telescope loses due to
concentrating on the infrared, it makes up
for through sheer size.

electron gun
Found in a cathode ray monitor / tv.

partial derivative
δz/δy
partial derivative of z with respect to y.
going up-hill, δz is positive.

symmetries
All symmetries in physics are approximate.

[[https://youtu.be/X9mEhcPbGsM?t=404][Leonard Susskind Why do we Search for Symmetry? (Closer to Truth) - YouTube]]

proton
A swarm of partons (little particles)
[[https://youtu.be/6Waurx8e-1o?t=768][Leonard Susskind: My friend Richard Feynman - YouTube]]

Because they are moving really fast,
the internal motions are very slow!
Amazing intuition!

When the electron hits the proton, you
see a frozen bunch of partons (a
snapshot of the proton).

This means you get to think of the
system as frozen partons.

Standard Model of Elementary Particles
[[/home/shane/dump/home/shane/notes2018/ws/physics/pictures/standard-model-of-elementary-particles.png][pictures/standard-model-of-elementary-particles.png]]

bosons
carry the fundamental forces.

fermions
comprise matter

quarks
comprise protons and neutrons

cant exist in isolation

up

down
heavier than up quark

leptons

neutrino (little neutral one)

helicity
[[/home/shane/dump/home/shane/notes2018/ws/physics/pictures/helicity.png][pictures/helicity.png]]

Direction of spin relative to direction of
motion.

reactive programming
event-driven programming

Concerned with:
- data streams, and
- the propagation of change.

Annus Mirabilis
In 1905 Albert Einstein published four
important papers, plus his dissertation,
and set the stage for all of modern
physics.

Getafix

Applies hierarchical clustering to many
thousands of past code changes that human
engineers made, looking at both the change
itself and also the context around the
code change.
Allows it to detect the underlying
patterns in bugs and the corresponding
fixes that previous auto-fix tools
couldn't.

Learns to fix patterns from past code
changes.

Because Getafix learns from past code
changes, it also produces fixes that are
easy for human engineers to understand.

Uses
- Clustering algorithm.
- Analyzes the context around the
particular lines of problematic code to
find more appropriate fixes.

target variable
The quantity to be predicted.

concept drift
[#Predictive analytics]
[#ML]

The statistical properties of the target
variable, which the model is trying to
predict, change over time in unforeseen
ways.

Predictions become less accurate as time
passes.

concept
Relates to the target variable (the
quantity to be predicted).

It can also refer to other phenomena
of interest besides the target
concept, such as an input, but, in the
context of concept drift, the term
commonly refers to the target
variable.

concept drift detection

Keras
[high-level API]

Used for:
- building and training deep learning models.
- fast prototyping,

- User friendly
simple, consistent interface
optimized for common use cases.

It provides clear and actionable
feedback for user errors.

Create new
- layers,
- loss functions,
- state-of-the-art models.

Hamiltonian Monte Carlo
[Markov chain Monte Carlo method]

Obtains a sequence of random samples from
a probability distribution for which
direct sampling is difficult.

This sequence can be used to approximate
the distribution (i.e., to generate a
histogram), or to compute an integral
(such as an expected value).

gram matrix
Gramian
Gramian matrix
(of a set of vectors in an inner product
space)

The Hermitian matrix of inner products.

Used to compute linear independence.

A set of vectors are linearly
independent if and only if the Gram
determinant (the determinant of the
Gram matrix) is non-zero.

arrow of time
2nd law of thermodynamics
disorder increases with time

convolutional layers
Have weight matrix with specific shape.

extraneous
Irrelevant or unrelated to the subject
being dealt with.

convolution vs correlation
convolution
Linear operations on the signal or
signal modifiers.

correlation
A measure of similarity between two
signals.

_difference
the convolution process rotates the
matrix by 180 degrees

automatic differentiation
Simultaneously manipulate values and
derivatives.

symbolic differentiation
Uses a collection of rules.

numeric approximation
Uses a small value of h. While very
simple, this method is often inaccurate,
due to choosing either too large or too
small a value for h.

CAP theorm
Any distributed system can have:

At MOST

2 of the following three properties:

- Consistency
- Availability
- Partition tolerance

Proof
[[https://mwhittaker.github.io/blog/an_illustrated_proof_of_the_cap_theorem/][An Illustrated Proof of the CAP Theorem]]

Extended Kalman filter
EKF
The nonlinear version of the Kalman filter
which linearizes about an estimate of the
current mean and covariance.

weak learner
[#ensemble learning]

https://machinelearningmastery.com/strong-learners-vs-weak-learners-for-ensemble-learning/

Models that perform slightly better than
random guessing.

See "Boosting".

strong learner
[#ensemble learning]

https://machinelearningmastery.com/strong-learners-vs-weak-learners-for-ensemble-learning/

Models that have arbitrarily good
accuracy.

Boosting

An ensemble meta-algorithm.

Use a set of weak learners create a single
strong learner.

See "meta-algorithm".
See "Ensemble learning".

[ML technique]

Used in regression and classification
problems.

Produces a prediction model in the form of
an ensemble of weak prediction models,
typically decision trees.

XGBoost
[data structure]

A 'boosted tree'; a variant of decision
tree.

Used for supervised learning problems.

Also a gradient boosting library of the
same name.
- distributed

Gold master
A final version of software ready for
release to manufacturing.

Generative graphical model
Generative deep neural network

Hidden unit
Latent variable

Deep Belief Network
DBN
A generative DNN.

Composition
Multiple layers of hidden units.
- Connections between the layers.
- No Connections between units within
each layer.

Unsupervised.
Trained on examples without
supervision.

Learns to reconstruct its inputs.
Probabilistically.

It's layers are feature detectors.

Can be further trained with supervision to
perform classification.
After being trained to detect
features.

Release candidate 1
rc1
It is a pre-release candidate.

If I check out emacs-26.1-rc1, that would
be older than emacs-26.1.
[[/var/smulliga/source/git/emacs-mirror/emacs26][emacs-mirror/emacs26]]

Extreme learning machine
Feedforward neural network.

Used for
- classification
- regression
- clustering
- sparse approximation
- compression
- feature learning

Composition
1 or more layers of hidden nodes.

The parameters of hidden nodes need
not be tuned.
(not just the weights connecting
inputs to hidden nodes)

hidden nodes
parameters need not be tuned.

can be randomly assigned and never updated (i.e. they are random
projection but with nonlinear transforms), or can be inherited from their
ancestors without being changed. In most cases, the output weights of
hidden nodes are usually learned in a single step, which essentially
amounts to learning a linear model. The name "extreme learning machine"
(ELM) was given to such models by its main inventor Guang-Bin Huang.

Kohonen Network
Self-Organising Map
SOM

neural Turing machines
NTM

Differentiable Neural Computer
DNC
[ANN]

An outgrowth of NTM.

NTM + attention mechanisms that control
where the memory is active, and improved
performance.

and, at the same time, the attention
mechanism.

LSTM
Long Short-term Memory

Neural Turing Machine
NTM
Combines the fuzzy pattern matching
capabilities of neural networks with the
algorithmic power of programmable
computers.

Architecture
A neural network controller coupled to
external memory resources, which it
interacts with through attentional
mechanisms.

The memory interactions are
differentiable end-to-end, making it
possible to optimize them using

An NTM with a long short-term memory
(LSTM) network controller can infer simple
algorithms such as copying, sorting, and
associative recall from input and output
examples.

Inference
They can infer algorithms from input
and output examples alone.

Specifically,
An NTM with an LSTM network
controller can infer simple
algorithms such as copying,
sorting, and associative recall
from input and output examples.

Homomorphic encryption
A form of encryption that allows
computation on ciphertexts, generating an
encrypted result which, when decrypted,
matches the result of the operations as if
they had been performed on the plaintext.

Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Algorithm
PPTA

Semantic Security
A semantically secure cryptosystem is one
the plaintext can be feasibly extracted
from the ciphertext.

In line with "computational complexity analogue to Perfect Secrecy".

In contrast to "Perfect Secracy".

Perfect Secrecy
[concept]

Given an encrypted message (or ciphertext)
from a perfectly secure encryption system
(or cipher), absolutely nothing will be
revealed about the unencrypted message (or
plaintext) by the ciphertext.

Shannon theorem of perfect secrecy
For a perfect encryption scheme, the
number of keys is at least the size of the
message space (number of messages that
have a non-zero probability).

computational complexity analogue to Perfect Secrecy
Cannot determine any partial information
on the message with probability
non-negligibly higher than all other
message length (and not the ciphertext).

Perfect Secracy
The ciphertext reveals no information at

In contrast to "Semantic Secracy".

Homomorphic encryption
A form of encryption that allows
computation on ciphertexts, generating an
encrypted result which, when decrypted,
matches the result of the operations as if
they had been performed on the plaintext.
The purpose of homomorphic encryption is
to allow computation on encrypted data.

Sentiment Analysis
The goal is to identify the polarity of
text content.

Bra–ket notation
A standard notation for describing quantum
states.

Quantum Mechanics
The study of things that are:
- really, really SMALL,
- really, really COLD, or
- really, really ISOLATED.

Quantum properties
Superposition [of spins]
Entanglement
Interferance
interferance.

Two types:
Constructive
Destructive

We can exploit superposition in a quantum
computer, but we can also use other
properties, such as entanglement, or
even interferance.

Compute
As a noun, this is used like so:
With libraries like JavaCPP, it's easy
to push compute to native when you
need to.

Permutation
A rearrangement.

Sterling's approximation
How big is a factorial.

26! ~= (26/3)^26

XOR
⊕
Appears to not be a digraph for this in
vim.

Sentence Segmentation

Connectome
A comprehensive map of neural connections
in the brain, and may be thought of as its
connectome would include the mapping of
all neural connections within an
organism's nervous system.

Cohort
A group of people with a shared
characteristic.

Statistical Machine Translation
SMT
The use of statistical models that learn
to translate text from a source language
to a target language given a large corpus
of examples.

Collaborative Filtering
Neighborhood-based CF
The key trick is finding the neighborhood
of (the set of users most similar to) the
user.

Jaccard Similarity
sim(A,B) = | r_A ∩ r_B / r_A ∪ r_B |

Used as the 'kernel' is collaborative
filtering.

Ignores rating values.
It only notices that A and B have
watche some movies in common.

Cosine similarity is better.

Cosine similarity
The best way to compute similarity in
collaborative filtering.

It takes into account ratings.

Treat unknown values (movies not watched)
as 0.

The problem with cosine similarity is it
treats the missing ratings as negative
ratings.

Centered cosine similarity
Normalise the ratings of each user so that
the sum of the ratings is 0.

To do this, subtract the row mean from each value.

Thermodynamic Entropy
Related to thermodynamic equilibrium.

Related to the amount of hidden
information based on thermodynamic
knowledge only.

So a rigid lattice is actually close to
thermal equalibrium.
It's not low *thermodynamic entropy*.
It might be low *entropy* of a different
sort (there is only one arrangement like
this). There is a difference between
thermal and non-theormal entropy.

Boltzmann machine
Has a remarkable ability similar to
dreaming. They were first introduced by
Geoff Hinton and Terry Sejnowski as a
model of the brain in 1983. They can
discover patterns when they are learning
from data. And when run in a closed loop
they can generate or dream new examples
based on what is has learned.

Semiring
A set, R.

Two binary operations
Multiplication (⋅)

(R, +) is a commutative monoid with
identity element 0
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
0 + a = a + 0 = a
a + b = b + a

(R, ⋅) is a monoid with identity element 1
(a⋅b)⋅c = a⋅(b⋅c)
1⋅a = a⋅1 = a

Multiplication left and right distributes
a⋅(b + c) = (a⋅b) + (a⋅c)
(a + b)⋅c = (a⋅c) + (b⋅c)

Multiplication by 0 annihilates R
0⋅a = a⋅0 = 0

monoid
[operation]

It's not a type, it's a property of an
operation.

Monoids are more interesting.
More applicable to helping us to write
better code, especially in a parallel
system.

- break it up into small tasks,
- spread that out to different workers.
These are on different threads or in
different machines.
- Here’s the key. The monoid lets you put
them back together

associative operation
Has 2 arguments. It's binary.
It takes 2 values of the same type and
returns a value of the same type.

gamma function
Γ(x) = (x-1)!

The gamma function is kind-of equal to the
factorial function.

Γ (z) = ∫_0-∞ t^(z−1) e^(−t) dt

$DUMP$HOME/notes2018/ws/machine-learning/reading/machine-learning-cheat-sheet.pdf

Hierarchical feature detection
Visual object classification is a type of
application where this is very effective.

Neural Network
Typically, the training cannot determine
the architecture.

convNet
Insight:
In a convNet there are many more
things to set, because layers are not
fully connected.

For each convolutional layer, the user
must specify:
- Number of filters
- Size of the filters
- The step size:
How a given filter is shifted over
the image map.
Whether filters extend beyond the
edge of the image.

For each pooling layer, the user must
specify:
- The size of the pooling window:
The subsampling ratio.
- The type of pooling:
Max or average.

Problems
- Throws away location information.
The order of features might be
ignored. This makes them easy to fool.
- Perform well only when test data is
similar to training data, resulting in
huge training set requirement.

Chaos
Deterministic Chaos
When the present determines the future,
but the approximate present does not
approximately determine the future.

Events that never repeat and vastly impact
the outcome un unpredictable.

An interdisciplinary theory.
It states:
Within the apparent randomness of
chaotic complex systems, there are
underlying patterns, constant feedback
loops, repetition, self-similarity,
fractals, self-organization, and
reliance on programming at the initial
point known as sensitive dependence on
initial conditions.

Chaotic behavior exists in many natural
systems, such as weather and climate.

Tenacious
retentive, recollective, long, tenacious.

dogged, dour, persistent, pertinacious,
tenacious, unyielding.

Lambda calculus
A minimal, turing complete programming
language.

In lambda calculus, everything is an
anonymous (i.e. nameless wink) function.

The lambda-calculus is a minimal
programming language.

meta-algorithm
metaheuristic
A higher-level procedure or heuristic
designed to find, generate, or select a
heuristic that may provide a sufficiently
good solution to an optimization problem,
especially with incomplete or imperfect
information.

Ensemble learning
Ensemble methods
Use multiple learning algorithms to obtain
better predictive performance than could
be obtained from any of the constituent
learning algorithms alone.

Weak learner
A classifier.

Only slightly correlated with the true
classification.

It can label examples better than random
guessing.

Strong learner
A classifier.

Arbitrarily well-correlated with the true
classification.

Hedge fund
An investment fund that pools capital from
accredited individuals or institutional
investors and invests in a variety of
assets, often with complex
portfolio-construction and risk-management
techniques.

Static analysis
Static code analysis
A method of computer program debugging
that is done by examining the code without
executing the program. The process
provides an understanding of the code
structure, and can help to ensure that the

poll
"wait for"
He process where the computer or
controlling device waits for an external
device to check for its readiness or
state, often with low-level hardware.

'poll' the operation [until it completes].

rope
[data structure]

Efficient for storing and manipulating
very large mutable strings.

Reduces memory reallocation and data copy
constantly operating on very large strings
by splitting them into multiple smaller
strings transparently.

Efficient random access is achieved via a
binary tree.

Network Information Service
NIS

Lexical scope
Static scope
A lexically scoped language means that
whenever an identifier is used as an
expression, something in the textual
environment of the expression determines
the identifier’s binding.

A convention used with many programming
languages that sets the scope (range of
functionality) of a variable so that it
may only be called (referenced) from
within the block of code in which it is
defined. The scope is determined when the
code is compiled.

System programming
Systems programming
The primary distinguishing characteristic
of systems programming when compared to
application programming is that
application programming aims to produce
software which provides services to the
user directly (e.g. word processor),
whereas systems programming aims to
produce software and software platforms
which provide services to other software,
are performance constrained, or both (e.g.
operating systems, computational science
applications, game engines and AAA video
games, industrial automation, and software
as a service applications).

SIG
Special Interest Group

SIGPLAN
The Association for Computing Machinery's
Special Interest Group on programming
languages.

SIG (special interest group)
PLAN (programming languages)

arc
https://youtu.be/nA6lwzh1Tbc?t=87

Over-arching plot.

corroborate
Confirm or give support to (a statement,
theory, or finding).

interferametry
Take signals from multiple telescropes and
interfere their signals with eachother.

The technique is used to combine multiple
radio telescropes into a larger one.

[quantum] spin (of an electron)
Is as intrinsic as mass and charge.

Quatnum spin produces a dipole magnetic
field.
Like a magnet with 2 ends. It has
magnetic field lines.

Are the smallest lines at plank length
though? -- maybe.

(Despite not being the same as
classical rotation).

https://youtu.be/7UwigY4SjKY?t=212
Rewatch this part -- it's amazing.

Electrons
Have no size.

See quantum spin.

swansong
The final performance or activity of a
person's career.

contiguous
Sharing a common border; touching.

Like consecutive, but physically.

Natural languages
The languages people speak, such as
English, Spanish, and French. They were
not designed by people (although people
try to impose some order on them); they
evolved naturally.

Formal languages
Languages that are designed by people for
specific applications. For example, the
notation that mathematicians use is a
formal language that is particularly good
at denoting relationships among numbers
and symbols. Chemists use a formal
language to represent the chemical
structure of molecules.

- strict syntax [rules]

Formal system
Defined by a finite set of symbols and a
some rules of inference.  A group of
symbols arranged in an order of some sort
is called a string. There are some strings
in the formal system which are known as
axioms. The rules of inference show us a
way of creating or generating theorems
from these base axioms.

Turing tarpit
A language that aims for
Turing-completeness in an arbitrarily
small number of linguistic elements -
ideally, as few as possible.

Currying
Making a new function from ‘f’ by filling
in some of ‘f’s arguments and allowing the
rest to be provided later.

An example of a higher order function.

Currying is this whole "Functions that
returns functions" scheme.

So, when you f(x)(y) you are actually
passing down 'y' to the 'f(x)' function.

All functions in haskell take only one
argument.

foldl takes an argument and returns a
function.

trampolining
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trampoline_(computing)

lexer
A sequence of rules; each rule is a
trigger and an action.

(lexer [trigger action] ...)

Remember, ... in racket is a kleene plus.

Lexers in Racket are unusually powerful
because the regular expressions used to
describe classes of tokens may use
non-standard regular operators like
difference, complement and intersection.

regular operator
An operator that a regular expression
uses.

curiosity driven

policy
goal
objective

Linear Congruential [Pseudorandom Number] Generator
Linear Congruential Generator
LCG
Pseudorandom number generator algorithm.

An algorithm that yields a sequence of
pseudo-randomized numbers calculated with
a discontinuous piecewise linear equation.
The method represents one of the oldest
and best-known pseudorandom number
generator algorithms.

NP-complete
While it is easy to confirm whether a
proposed solution is valid, it may
inherently be prohibitively difficult to
determine in the first place whether any
solution exists.

Subset sum problem
An important problem in complexity theory
and cryptography.

Given a set (or multiset) of integers, is
there a non-empty subset whose sum is
zero?

Example,
Given the set {−7, −3, −2, 5, 8}, the
answer is yes because the subset {−3,
−2, 5} sums to zero.

The problem is NP-complete.

An equivalent problem is this:
Given a set of integers and an integer
s, does any non-empty subset sum to s?

Subset sum can also be thought of as:
A special case of the knapsack
problem.

One interesting special case of subset
sum is the partition problem, in which
s is half of the sum of all elements
in the set.

monotonic function
A function between ordered sets that
preserves or reverses the given order.

If it is either entirely non-increasing,
or entirely non-decreasing.

superincreasing sequence
A sequence of positive real numbers is
called superincreasing if every element of
the sequence is greater than the sum of
all previous elements in the sequence.

monotonically increasing function vs superincreasing sequence
In superincreasing the elements are
greater than the SUM of previous elements.

In a monotonically increasing function,
the elements are greater than only the
previous element.

PKCS #1
The first of a family of standards called
Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS),

Chinese remainder theorm
A theorem of number theory.

If one knows the remainders of the
Euclidean division of an integer n by
several integers, then one can determine
uniquely the remainder of the division of
n by the product of these integers, under
the condition that the divisors are
pairwise coprime.

Discovered 3rd century AD by the Chinese
mathematician Sunzi in Sunzi Suanjing.

Widely used for computing with large
integers.

Allows replacing a computation for which
one knows a bound on the size of the
result by several similar computations on
small integers.

The Chinese remainder theorem (expressed
in terms of congruences) is true over
every principal ideal domain.

It has been generalized to any commutative
ring, with a formulation involving ideals.

Birthday problem
In a set of n randomly chosen people, some
pair of them will have the same birthday.

By the pigeonhole principle, the
probability reaches 100% when the number
of people reaches 367 (since there are
only 366 possible birthdays, including
February 29).

However, 99.9% probability is reached with
just 70 people, and 50% probability with
23 people.

These conclusions are based on the
assumption that each day of the year
(excluding February 29) is equally
probable for a birthday.

Real-world applications for the birthday
called the birthday attack.

Birthday attack
Uses the probabilistic model of the
birthday problem to reduce the complexity
of finding a collision for a hash
function.

Expressive language
Express more with fewer characters.

"Hello world"

vs.

public class HelloWorld {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("Hello world");
}
}

echo server
A tcp server that just repeats back at you
whatever you say to it.

non sequitur
Formal fallacy, an invalid argument whose
conclusion is not supported by its
premises.

Non sequitur (literary device), an
irrelevant, often humorous comment to a
preceding topic or statement.

Concerns safety with respect to shared
data.

pass-by-name
The way lisp macros handle arguments.

The body of a function is interpreted at
call time after textually substituting the
actual parameters into the function body.

linter
lint (plural)
Tools that analyze source code to flag
programming errors, bugs, stylistic
errors, and suspicious constructs.

neutrino
Only interacts with the weak force.

It would take a lightyear's worth of lead
to stop one.

Operational semantics
A category of formal programming language
semantics in which certain desired
properties of a program, such as
correctness, safety or security, are
verified by constructing proofs from
logical statements about its execution and
procedures, rather than by attaching
mathematical meanings to its terms
(denotational semantics).

Reduction semantics
An alternative presentation of operational
semantics using so-called reduction
contexts.

A technique for formalizing an equational
theory for control and state.

Syntactic form
The core syntax forms that appear in a
fully expanded expression.

PyonR
Pioneer
An implementation of the Python
programming language for the Racket
platform.

Cryptanalysis
The study of analyzing information systems
in order to study the hidden aspects of
the systems.

functional programming
Avoids changing-state and mutable data.

No state and mutation.

There are times where the
functional-programming approach doesn’t
fit, especially with functions that are
used for their side effects—for instance,
println. So the rule of thumb in Racket is
to use functional programming when you
can, and depart from it when you must.

I would argue to keep it separate anyway.

Functional parser
Parser combinator

Language Independent RPC

parser combinator
A higher-order function that accepts
several parsers as input and returns a new
parser as its output.

Theorem
[#Gödel's incompleteness theorem]

It's not an obstacle to AI.

ewwlinks +/"A theorem is any string" "https://www.sdsc.edu/~jeff/Godel_vs_AI.html"

Any string which can be can be derived
from the axiom(s) by applying zero or more
of the rules of inference in succession to
the axiom(s).

Consistency
Consistency in a formal system means that
every theorem [of the formal system], upon
interpretation, comes out true (in some
imaginable world).

Complete
A formal system is complete if for every
statement of the formal system, either the
statement or its negation can be derived
(i.e., proved) in the system. Hence a
formal system is consistent if there is no
statement such that the statement itself
and its negation are both derivable in the
system.

Godel's Incompleteness theorem
All consistent axiomatic formulations of
number theory include undecidable
propositions.

In simpler mathematical terms, any
consistent formal system which can do even
simple arithmetic is incomplete meaning
there are true statements in the realm of
number theory which can not be derived
from the axioms of the formal system. This
means that some statements even if they
are true are not theorems of the formal
system.

mutual recursion
A form of recursion where two mathematical
or computational objects, such as
functions or data types, are defined in
terms of each other.

abstract machine
In academia, both Turing Machines and
Lambda Calculus are examples of abstract
machines.

clause
a disjunction of literals.

Horn clause
A clause with at most one positive
literal. A Horn clause with exactly one
positive literal is a definite clause

goal clause
A Horn clause with no positive literals.

nuanced
Characterized by subtle shades of meaning
or expression.

convex compact set
Describes a convex set that is closed and
bounded.

https://youtu.be/c4pgWd8V8HU?t=117

one-hot encoding
Each word from the vocabulary is
represented as a unique binary vector with
only one nonzero entry.

Not so great at representing words.

Terrible for n-grams.

Each vector has a size of the vocabulary
(or even bigger in case of n-grams) which
makes modeling difficult.

Quantum fluctuation
Vacuum state fluctuation
Vacuum fluctuation
The temporary change in the amount of
energy in a point in space, as explained
in Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty
principle.

This is what annealing quantum computers
use.

garnered
Gather or collect (something, especially
information or approval).

"garnered some respect".

supplicant
A fervently religious person who prays to
God for help with a problem

Someone who begs earnestly for something
he or she wants.

A younger brother entreating his sister to
be allowed in her tree house could be
described as a supplicant.

An entity at one end of a point-to-point
LAN segment that seeks to be authenticated
by an authenticator attached to the other
end of that link. The IEEE 802.1X standard
uses the term "supplicant" to refer either
to hardware or to software.

binary safe
A binary-safe function is one that treats
its input as a raw stream of bytes and
ignores every textual aspect it may have.

exec < <(p "$input") # binary safe exec < <(cat <<< "$input") # xxd -p <<< "foo" # not binary safe (appends newline)
cat t.txt | xxd -p # 0a0a0a0a0a
xxd -p <<< "$(cat t.txt)" # 0a # It appears <<< strips all remaining whitespace from the variable and enforces a single newline magnum opus masterpiece The greatest work of a writer, artist, or composer. intolerable ethereal Extremely delicate and light in a way that seems not to be of this world. diagnostic Concerned with the diagnosis of illness or other problems. "a diagnostic tool". compose key The key that allows you to enter alternate characters. On a mac this is the option key. generative model statistical classification Includes machine learning. Two main approaches generative approach discriminative approach These compute classifiers by different approaches, differing in the degree of statistical modeling. VAE Estimates the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the training data. If such a model is trained on natural looking images, it should assign a high probability value to an image of a lion. VAE VAE model A generative model. An image of random gibberish on the other hand should be assigned a low probability value. Can also sample examples from the learned PDF, which is the coolest part, since it’ll be able to generate new examples that look similar to the original dataset! reverse proxy CRUD Create, read, update and delete Create, retrieve, update and destroy The four basic functions of persistent storage. Kanban Lean method to manage and improve work across human systems. This approach aims to manage work by balancing the demands with available capacity, and improving the handling of system level bottlenecks. The powers the be A phrase used to refer to those individuals or groups who collectively hold authority over a particular domain. Bernoulli random variable Boolean random variable May describe the event that __ has cancer. Probabilistic inference The task of deriving the probability of one or more random variables taking a specific value or set of values. For example, a Bernoulli (Boolean) random variable may describe the event that John has cancer. Such a variable could take a value of 1 (John has cancer) or 0 (John does not have cancer). DeepDive uses probabilistic inference to estimate the probability that the random variable takes value 1: a probability of 0.78 would mean that John is 78% likely to have cancer. ideation The formation of ideas or concepts. frisson piloerection It coincides with the release of endorphines. Meowlingual The name of the new company. wavelet A mathematical function useful in digital signal processing and image compression. The use of wavelets for these purposes is a recent development, although the theory is not new. The principles are similar to those of Fourier analysis, which was first developed in the early part of the 19th century. EMG electromyography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WtM1yz34co Language interoperability Language interop The capability of two different programming languages to natively interact as part of the same system. geosynchronous orbit A band around the earth where satellites remain euoetill in relation to the earth. textual test fixture A fixed state of a set of objects used as a baseline for running tests. The purpose of a test fixture is to ensure that there is a well known and fixed environment in which tests are run so that results are repeatable. higher-order languages https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11229-017-1502-0 adheres corresponds anaphoric The use of an expression whose interpretation depends upon another expression in context. syntax optimisation I coined this. Once certain facts about a formal language are known, a DSL can be made around it, usually to automate / streamline the language. Turnover rate The percentage of employees leaving a company within a certain period of time. Test iteration time Iterative testing The product is tested and changed repeatedly at different stages of design/development to eliminate usability issues before the product is launched. In agile software development, iteration single development cycle complement The thing that complements a set. compliment A nice thing to say. inosculation A natural or surgical joining of parts or branches of tubular structures so as to make or become continuousa. affect impact software forges - GitHub - Bitbucket - GitLab Double rainbow https://youtu.be/OXDbc7QfTXU?t=320 Alexander's band Alexander's band Between the red from inner rainbow to the red from outer rainbow. entanglement There are degrees of entaglement. https://youtu.be/aJM5Bkdzspk?t=285 misled undecidable problem A decision problem for which it is proved to be impossible to construct an algorithm that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer. Automatic Differentiation AD A technology for automatically augmenting computer programs, including arbitrarily complex simulations, with statements for the computation of derivatives, also known as sensitivities. A good explanation: https://alexey.radul.name/ideas/2013/introduction-to-automatic-differentiation/ Uses: - real-parameter optimization - sensitivity analysis - local sensitivity = ∂(result)/∂(input) - physical modeling - Forces are derivatives of potentials - Equations of motion are derivatives of Lagrangians and Hamiltonians - probabilistic inference - Hamiltonian Monte Carlo - ML Langarian mechanics No new physics are necessarily introduced in applying Lagrangian mechanics compared to Newtonian mechanics. The Lagrangian (A mathematical function) A function of: - the generalized coordinates, - their time derivatives, and - time It contains the information about the dynamics of the system. Hamiltonian mechanics A theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics. It uses a different mathematical formalism, providing a more abstract understanding of the theory. Hamiltonian H Ȟ Ĥ [#quantum mechanics] [operator] The total energy of the system in most of the cases. Example: Total energy of a particle. Its spectrum is the set of possible outcomes when one measures the total energy of a system. quasiparticle A group of particles that behave as if they’re one because their parts are interacting somehow. superfluid Frictionless superconductor. dogfooding When an organization uses its own product. Similar to "taste of your own medicine", except, if we're being precise, the latter is a bad thing where dogfooding is a good thing. PascalCase Words created by concatenating capitalized words. An example is this page's title, PascalCase. Sometimes called "UpperCamelCase", or "DromedaryCase". Distinguished from CamelCase by the restriction that the first letter must be upper case. ("camelCase" isn't PascalCase, but "PascalCase" is.) Concrete type Not an interfacea. Interface types provide contracts to concrete types. When you implement interface types into concrete types, you don’t need to explicitly declare the interface type along with your struct definition. Instead, it will implicitly implement the interface types into your types at run time. power set [of S] The set of all subsets of S. DFA Deterministic Finite Automatons NFA Nondeterministic Finite Automatons vimhelp NFA NFA vs DFA They have exactly the same capabilities and limitations. The only difference is notational convenience. SOLID Five guidelines for object-oriented computer programming. Improves: - understandability - flexiblility - maintainability Dependency Inversion Principle High-level modules, which provide complex logic, should be easily reusable and unaffected by changes in low-level modules, which provide utility features. LSP Liskov Substitution Principle A concept in Object Oriented Programming that states: Functions that use pointers or references to base classes must be able to use objects of derived classes without knowing it. Sphere Indexing http://donw.io/post/sphere-indexing/ Population inversion From statistical mechanics. Occurs while a system (such as a group of atoms or molecules) exists in a state in which more members of the system are in higher, excited states than in lower, unexcited energy states. It is called an "inversion" because in many familiar and commonly encountered physical systems, this is not possible. The concept is of fundamental importance in laser science because the production of a population inversion is a necessary step in the workings of a standard laser. Cardinality The degree of relationship The number of occurrences in one entity which are associated (or linked) to the number of occurrences in another. There are three degrees of relationship, known as: one-to-one (1:1) one-to-many (1:M) many-to-many (M:N) a priori from the earlier a posteriori from the later Nautical twilight The second twilight phase. Both the horizon and the brighter stars are usually visible at this time, making it possible to navigate at sea. During nautical twilight, both the horizon and the brighter stars are usually visible. AlphaZero Can crack any perfect-information game. Rayleigh-Taylor instability An 'instability'. In an inverted cup of water, air pressure provides a force perpendicular to the water surface which means that around the ripples we no longer have a force pointing straight up. Even the tiniest of ripples may grow to the point where the water completely changes shape and it eventually deforms its way out of the glass. Generative Model A powerful way of learning any kind of data distribution using unsupervised learning. All types of generative models aim at learning the true data distribution of the training set so as to generate new data points with some variations. I think it's just a more ambitious version of distriminative. Once you have a generative model, you get classification for free. Approaches of statistical classification Two main approaches - Generative approach - Discriminative approach The classifiers are computed by different approaches. The approaches differ in the degree of statistical modeling. Last universal common ancestor LUCA Last universal ancestor LUA cenancestor (incorrectly) progenote The most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent. LUCA is the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth. Progenote A hypothetical simple biological entity or organized system of a kind that could have included the evolutionary common ancestor of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Symmetry The idea that one aspect of a system can change while another remains constant. The idea of natural laws themselves, rely on the forms of symmetry that mean the same forces will apply to you as they do to me, independently of our position in space or time. Annealing A heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable. Over time, finds rest / stabilises at a lower energy state. Allegory A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one. posterior inference Posterior probability distribution The probability distribution of an unknown quantity, treated as a random variable, conditional on the evidence obtained from an experiment or survey. posterior probability [of a random event] [of an uncertain proposition] The conditional probability that is assigned after the relevant evidence or background is taken into account. "Posterior", in this context, means after taking into account the relevant evidence related to the particular case being examined. For instance, there is a ("non-posterior") probability of a person finding buried treasure if they dig in a random spot, and a posterior probability of finding buried treasure if they dig in a spot where their metal detector rings. RISC-V An open-source hardware instruction set architecture based on established reduced instruction set computer principles. Roko's Basilisk It's meant to be a terrifying thought experiment, but I really don't find it to be so. transitive dependency A functional dependency which holds by virtue of transitivity. This is what I imagine it to be. Dependecy by proxy. Can occur only in a relation that has three or more attributes. Let A, B, and C designate three distinct attributes (or distinct collections of attributes) in the relation. Suppose all three of the following conditions hold: A → B It is not the case that B → A B → C Then the functional dependency A → C (which follows from 1 and 3 by the axiom of transitivity) is a transitive dependency. Connected Components A hard clustering algorithm which finds clusters/islands in related/connected data. As a concrete example: Say you have data about roads joining any two cities in the world, and you need to find out all the continents in the world and which city they contain. Celtic Blessing (Anon.) May peace guard The door of your house The door of your heart May the road rise to meet you, And the sun stand at your shoulder May the wind be always at your back And the rains fall softly upon your fields May life itself befriend you anti-de Sitter space A toy universe. Physicists’ theoretical playground of choice. Works like a hologram. The bendy fabric of space-time in the interior of the universe is a projection that emerges from entangled quantum particles living on its outer boundary. This holographic "emergence" of space-time works just like a quantum error-correcting code. Quantum Error Correction Explains how space-time achieves its "intrinsic robustness," despite being woven out of fragile quantum stuff. The language of quantum error correction is also starting to enable researchers to probe the mysteries of black holes. Black hole Spherical regions in which space-time curves so steeply inward toward the center that not even light can escape. "Everything traces back to black holes," said Almheiri, who is now at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. These paradox-ridden places are where gravity reaches its zenith and Einstein's general relativity theory fails. "There are some indications that if you understand which code space-time implements," he said, "it might help us in understanding the black hole interior." regimen A prescribed course of medical treatment, diet, or exercise for the promotion or restoration of health. Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. Father of: - observational astronomy - modern physics - the scientific method - modern science NSAIDs Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs e.g. - ibuprofen Nociceptive pain Caused by damage to body tissue. For mild pain: - paracetamol - asprin - NSAIDs + ibuprofen Neuropathic pain Non-effective: - morphine - NSAIDs + ibuprofen - paracetamol Chronic inflammatory pain morphism A structure-preserving map from one mathematical structure to another one of the same type. tremolo Like a trill but keys are further apart. https://fundamentals-of-piano-practice.readthedocs.io/en/latest/chapter1/ch1_topics/III.3.html#b-tremolos-beethoven-s-pathetique-1st-movement Glissando Swipe your hand down the piano. Non-deterministic operations Can have different results given the same input. Very common in imperative (in contrast to functional) programming. macroid A function that acts like a macro. You can write these in javascript. Turn Based Processing Single-threaded. Race free. Deadlock free. The Law of Turns Never wait. Never block. Finish fast. - Events. Message passing. No threads. No mutexes. - Web browsers. - Most UI frameworks. - Servers: Elko, Twisted, Nodejs. - Asynchronicity can be hard to manage. geodesic Basically, a straight line through curved space. E.g. an orbit. posigrade Relating to, using, or being an auxiliary rocket that imparts additional thrust to a spacecraft in the direction of motion. e.g. 2 feet posigrade. arborist An arborist, tree surgeon, or arboriculturist, is a professional in the practice of arboriculture, which is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants in dendrology and horticulture. XPDL XPath Derived Language Examples: XPath XQuery smoking gun An object or fact that serves as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act, just short of being caught in flagrante delicto. "Smoking gun" refers to the strongest kind of circumstantial evidence, as opposed to direct evidence. Direct evidence would include the entire action: Pulling the trigger, firing the gun, and the victim falling. Data Science Drawing useful conclusions from large and diverse data sets through: - exploration - prediction - inference Exploration [Data science] Identifying patterns in information. Primary tools: - Visualizations - Descriptive statistics Prediction [Data science] Using information we know to make informed guesses about values we wish we knew. Primary tools: - Machine learning - Optimization Inference Quantifying our degree of certainty: - Will the patterns that we found in our data also appear in new observations? - How accurate are our predictions? Primary tools: - statistical tests - models alternation The repeated occurrence of two things in turn. [subjective] evil Anything that keeps one away from their inner-heart and thus from their soul. "Through emptiness - evil expresses." Evil can only be 'disguised' if we do not know what we are looking for. provisioning The process of preparing and equipping a network to allow it to provide new services to its users CIO typically manages provisioning. - Give users access to data repositories or grant authorization to systems, network applications and databases based on a unique user identity. - Appropriate for their use hardware resources, such as computers, mobile phones and pagers. Flow control The process of managing the rate of data transmission between two nodes to prevent a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver. Not to be confused with control flow. Control flow Flow of control The order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated. Not to be confused with flow control. LASER Language-Agnostic SEntence Representations Toolkit. Provides: - Universal, language-agnostic sentence embeddings Uses: - Zero-shot transfer across 93 languages - strong results in cross-lingual document classification (MLDoc corpus) See: vim +/"^LASER" "$HOME/notes2018/ws/nlp-natural-language-processing/glossary.txt"

Feature set
The set of all the attributes that you're
interested in.

Forward selection
An approach to feature selection, which is
a type of dimensionality reduction.

- Efficient for choosing a small subset of
the features.
- Misses features whose usefulness
requires other features (feature
synergy) .

Backward elimination
An approach to feature selection, which is
a type of dimensionality reduction.

- Efficient for discarding a small subset
of the features.
- Preserves features whose usefulness
requires other features.

hill-climbing
hill-climbing search
[optimization technique]
[iterative algorithm]

Finding the maximum of a function.

Belongs to the family of local search.

Starts with an arbitrary solution to a
problem, then attempts to find a better
solution by making an incremental change
to the solution.

If the change produces a better solution,
another incremental change is made to the
new solution, and so on until no further
improvements can be found.

For example, hill climbing can be applied
to the travelling salesman problem.

It is easy to find an initial solution
that visits all the cities but will likely
be very poor compared to the optimal
solution.

The algorithm starts with such a solution
and makes small improvements to it, such
as switching the order in which two cities
are visited.

Eventually, a much shorter route is likely
to be obtained.

Forward selection vs. backward elimination
http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~dpage/cs760/DimensionalityReduction.pdf

Both use a hill-climbing search.

Feature selection
Equivalent to projecting feature space to
a lower dimensional subspace perpendicular
to removed feature

Dimensionality reduction
Generalisation (loosely)
A broader class of projections including:
+ feature selection
- forward selection
- backward elemination
+ PCA

PCA re-represents data using linear
combinations of original features, so it's
not a feature selection technique, but IS
a technique used to perform dimensionality
reduction.

Examples:
+ t-SNE
+ PCA
+ LSA
+ SVD
+ LDA

Sequence-to-sequence processing
Neural machine translation
An encoder/decoder approach.

gimbal
A pivoted support that allows the rotation
of an object about a single axis.

Gimbal lock
The loss of one degree of freedom in a
three-dimensional, three-gimbal mechanism
that occurs when the axes of two of the
three gimbals are driven into a parallel
configuration, "locking" the system into
rotation in a degenerate two-dimensional
space.

The word lock is misleading: no gimbal is
restrained.

fermion
could be either
- an elementary particles
such as an electron
- a composite particle
such as a proton

Spin-statistics theorem
[#any reasonable relativistic quantum
field theory]

- particles with integer spin are bosons,
- particles with half-integer spin are
fermions.

Referential transparency
A property of a function.

The function will always give the same
result for a set of parameters no matter
when it is called.

Pure functions
A pure function with value parameters
Reusability
It is much easier to transplant a pure
function to a new environment.

How many times have you known there
was some code that does what you need
in another system, but extricating it
from all of its environmental
assumptions was more work than just
writing it over?
Testability
Referential transparency

multivariate data

anomaly detection
outlier detection
[#data mining]

The identification of rare items, events
or observations which raise suspicions by
differing significantly from the majority
of the data.

Unsupervised anomaly detection
Detect anomalies in an unlabeled test data
set under the assumption that the majority
of the instances in the data set are
normal by looking for instances that seem
to fit least to the remainder of the data
set.

Supervised anomaly detection
Require a data set that has been labeled
as "normal" and "abnormal" and involves
training a classifier.

Semi-supervised anomaly detection
Construct a model representing normal
behavior from a given normal training data
set, and then test the likelihood of a
test instance to be generated by the
learnt model.

Delta Debugging
A methodology to automate the debugging of
programs using a scientific approach of
hypothesis-trial-result loop.

- hypothesis
- trial
- result

anchor
[#regex]

- \b
- \< (vim)
- \> (vim)

terminal nodes
leaf nodes

Game Tree
Each node of a game tree represents a
particular state in a game.

The nomenclature is very similar to
decision trees wherein the terminal nodes
are called leaf nodes.

Tree Search Algorithms
Uninformed Search
Best First Search
Minimax

Quasar
Only every found as the ulra-bright core
of an extremely distant galaxy.

random sampling
[basic sampling technique]

We select a group of subjects (a sample)
for study from a larger group (a
population).

Each individual is chosen entirely by
chance and each member of the population
has an equal chance of being included in
the sample.

Monte Carlo Tree Search
MCTS
[heuristic tree search algorithm]

Application
Some kinds of decision processes, most
notably those employed in game play.

Focus
The analysis of the most promising
moves, expanding the search tree based
on random sampling of the search
space.

Essence
Bias the choice of child nodes,
letting the game tree expand towards
the most promising moves.

Each round consists of 4 steps:
+ Selection

- Start from root R
- elect successive child nodes until a
leaf node L is reached.

The root is the current game state and a
leaf is any node from which no
simulation (playout) has yet been
initiated.

+ Expansion

Unless L ends the game decisively (e.g.
win/loss/draw) for either player, create
one (or more) child nodes and choose
node C from one of them.

Child nodes are any valid moves from the
game position defined by L.

+ Simulation

Complete one random playout from node C.

This step is sometimes also called
playout or rollout.

A playout may be as simple as choosing
uniform random moves until the game is
decided (for example in chess, the game
is won, lost, or drawn).

+ Backpropagation

Use the result of the playout to update
information in the nodes on the path
from C to R.

Impressment
The taking of men into a military or naval
force by compulsion, with or without
notice.

Travelling Salesman Problem
TSP
Given a list of cities and the distances
between each pair of cities, what is the
shortest possible route that visits each
city and returns to the origin city?

- NP-hard problem in combinatorial
optimization, important in operations
research and theoretical computer
science.

Hopfield Network
Can solve the Travelling Salesman Problem.

false dichotomy
false dilemma
A type of informal fallacy in which
something is falsely claimed to be an
"either/or" situation, when in fact there
is at least one additional option. A false
dilemma can arise intentionally, when a
fallacy is used in an attempt to force a
choice or outcome.

A dichotomy that is not jointly exhaustive
(there are other alternatives), or that is
not mutually exclusive (the alternatives
overlap), or that is possibly neither.

The presentation of two opposing
conditions or views that do not properly
represent all options.

Riviera
A coastal region with a subtropical
climate and vegetation.

[humid] subtropical
[#climate]

- Hot and humid summers.
- Mild winters.

authoritarian
Favouring or enforcing strict obedience to
authority at the expense of personal
freedom.

thermodynamics
The study of the relationship of all forms
of energy in the universe.

Jacques Salomon Hadamard ForMemRS was a
contributions in number theory, complex
function theory, differential geometry and
partial differential equations

A binary operation that takes two matrices
of the same dimensions and produces
another matrix where each element i, j is
the product of elements i, j of the
original two matrices.

It should not be confused with the more
common matrix product.

smoke alarm
has 3 beeps

CO alarm
carbon monoxide alarm
has 4 beeps, faster

URL
https://danielmiessler.com/study/url-uri/

URI
danielmiessler.com/study/url-uri/

cohort
A group of subjects who share a defining
characteristic.

Image segmentation
A computer vision task in which we label
specific regions of an image according to
what's being shown.

Semantic image segmentation

The programming that manages communication
between an end user interface and a
database.

The main components of business logic are

1st order optimisation problem
Requires us to comptute the 1st
derivative.

2nd order optimisation problem
Requires us to comptute the 2nd
derivative.

Logistic Regression vs Linear Regression
Key difference is that Linear Regression
predicts a continuous outcome.

Logistic Regression computes a discrete
outcome.

Hessian
A matrix of second order partial
derivatives (the derivative of the
derivative).

Those are derivatives of the weights /
coefficients.

Covariance
Positive means moves in the same
direction.

Stochastic [process]
Can't be predicted.
Opposite of deterministic.

Word Map

distributed word representations
neural word embeddings

model
Prediction is made from the input.

Examples:
- linear model; a linear combination of
weighted input features.

parameters
The undetermined part that we need to
learn from data.

Model fitness

Fitness Function
Fitness criteria
Cost function
Loss function
objective function
reward function
profit function
utility function
http://www.deeplearningpatterns.com/doku.php?id=fitness

Lots of terms for the same thing!

Objective Function
Measures how well the model fit the
training data.

Consists of 2 parts:
- Training Loss
- Regularization

Model fitting
The essence of machine learning.

A measure of how well a machine learning
model generalizes to similar data to that
on which it was trained.

A model that is well-fitted produces more
accurate outcomes, a model that is
overfitted matches the data too closely,
and a model that is underfitted doesn't
match closely enough.

Examples
Fit a neural language model with a
learned embedding and an LSTM hidden
layer.

Word-level Neural Language Model

Word-level Prediction

Word-level networks
[type of neural network]

Each word in the sentence is translated
into a set of numbers before being fed
into the neural network.

These numbers change over time while the
neural net trains itself, encoding unique
properties such as the semantics and
contextual information for each word.

Explicit Density Model
vs Implicit Density Model

Implicit Density Model
vs Explicit Density Model

tractable
- (of a person)
Easy to control or influence.

- (of a situation or problem)
Easy to deal with.

tractable density
vs intractable density

intractable density
vs tractable density

Combinatorial complexity

Earth Mover Distance
EMD

Optimal Substructure
Property of a problem.

If it can be solved optimally by breaking
it into sub-problems and then recursively
finding the optimal solutions to the
sub-problems, then it is said to have
optimal substructure.

Auto-regressive Network
DeepMind seems to be enamored with this.

Examples
- WaveNet
- PixelRNN
- PixelCNN
- ByteNet

CNN networks and has remarkably different
behaviour.

Type of Generative Network.

Beauty
- The same formulation applies to one
dimensional, two dimensional and higher
dimensional domains:

Crenelations
The solid widths between the crenels are
called merlons. A wall with battlements is
said to be crenelated or embattled.
Battlements on walls have protected
walkways    (chemin de ronde) behind them.
On tower or building tops, the (often
flat) roof is    used as the protected
fighting platform.

Computes the gradient of the cost function
w.r.t. to the parameters θ.

faceted search
A count of attributes.

Example,
eCommerce sites use facets to tell
customers how many items of a specific
model, size, color, and other
attributes are found)

solr
Probably a better search engine that
sphinx.

Sphinx vs Solr, or Solr vs Sphinx, or
Sphinx vs Elasticsearch as they all are
decent competitors, with almost equal
performance, scalability, and features.

It uses Apache Lucene, probably even the
query language.

Though I should probably stick with
ElasticSearch.

The ability to create multiple functions
of the same name with different
implementations.

This, that
The 'demonstrative'.

Type of 'determiner'.

The
The 'definite article'.

Type of 'determiner'.

determiner
Common kinds of determiners include
definite and indefinite articles (like the
English the and a or an), demonstratives
(this and that), possessive determiners
(my and their), quantifiers (many, few and
several), numerals, distributive
determiners (each, any), and interrogative
determiners (which).

modal verb
Examples
- will

They have various uses, including the
future.

poincare duality [theorem]
A basic result on the structure of the
homology and cohomology groups of
manifolds. It states that if M is an
n-dimensional oriented closed manifold
(compact and without boundary), then the
kth cohomology group of M is isomorphic to
the (n  k)th homology group of M, for all
integers k

Holds for any coefficient ring, so long as
one has taken an orientation with respect
to that coefficient ring;
in particular, since every manifold
has a unique orientation mod 2,
Poincar duality holds mod 2 without
any assumption of orientation.

learning rates for each parameter.

In addition to storing an exponentially
decaying average of past squared gradients
keeps an exponentially decaying average of
past gradients m_t, similar to momentum.

Whereas momentum can be seen as a ball
running down a slope, Adam behaves like a
heavy ball with friction, which thus
prefers flat minima in the error surface.

We compute the decaying averages of past
and past squared gradients m_t and v_t
respectively.

jsonnet
A simple extension of JSON.

pyro
Built on pytorch.

Residual Network
It's so simple that it's a type of
network.  Is your X network also a
Residual Network?

Feed into the next layer:
- output of previous layer
- input of previous layer
This is the new idea.

Very good for ImageNet classification.

Able to be trained up to 1000 layers deep

The only difference is that instead of
feeding only the output into the next
layer, you feed also the input into the
next layer.

That lower accuracy that occurs with
deeper networks.

Not accepted as valid.

(especially of evidence in court)

Euler's Method
A numerical method to solve first order
first degree differential equation with a
given initial value.

The Euler method often serves as the basis
to construct more complex methods, e.g.,
predictor-corrector method.

Differentiable Programming
A shift opposite from the direction taken
by deep learning;
- from increasingly heavily parameterised
models to simpler ones that take more

Monte Carlo Analysis
Applications
- risk analysis

Builds models of possible results by
substituting a range of values (a
probability distribution) for any factor
that has inherent uncertainty.

It then calculates results over and over,
each time using a different set of random
values from the probability functions.

[theory of] quantum gravity
Unites Quantum Physics with General
Relativity.

What's the gravitational pull of a
particle in a quantum superposition?

nix [package manager]
https://chris-martin.org/2017/nix-for-stack-users

Think of Nix like Stack, but with a much

Stack is there to manage your project's
programs and compile stuff with them, but
only if the dependencies are Haskell
packages.

Nix dependencies can be... kinda any
software at all.

Nix and Stack work together nicely. When
you enable Nix integration for Stack, you
can add any software as a dependency of

nix-shell
Like "stack exec".

C
To be able to know the address of a
variable is of paramount importance.

Memory layout of a process
| Stack    | Stores temporary variables
| program? |
| Heap     | Stores global variables
| Code     |

Variable placeholder
printf("The address of test is %d");

FILO
First in, last out.

Stack
FILO

etc
As a footnote, I just received email from Dennis Ritchie
stating:

I assure you that the original contents of /etc
were the "et cetera" that didn't seem to fit elsewhere.
Other variants might do their own etymologies differently.

Regards,
Dennis

---
Peter H. Salus

amortized
Gradually write off the initial cost of
(an asset) over a period.

Refinement type
[type theory]

A type endowed with a predicate which is
assumed to hold for any element of the
refined type.

Can express preconditions when used as
function arguments or postconditions when
used as return types.

Example:
- a natural number

SMT [problem]
Satisfiability modulo theories [problem]
A form of the constraint satisfaction
problem.

A certain formalized approach to
constraint programming.

A decision problem for logical formulas
with respect to combinations of background
theories expressed in classical
first-order logic with equality.

http://goto.ucsd.edu:8090/index.html#?demo=refinements101.hs

Refinement Types via:
- SMT, and
- Predicate Abstraction

Promise API
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3884281/what-does-the-function-then-mean-in-javascript

Designed to solve the callback nesting
problem and the error handling that comes
with it.

functions
- .then()

tacit [knowledge]
understood or implied without being stated.

golden ratio
The most irrational number, because it has
the simplest continued fraction.

Has 2 forms:
- φ = 1 + 1 / φ
- 1/φ = 0 + 1 / φ

Continued fraction:
- φ = 1 + 1 / (1 + 1 / φ')

The reason it's found everywhere in nature
(and fibonacci numbers, by extension) must
be because:
- the simplicity of its formula
- it embodies the limit of irrationality
you can achieve with only one variable.

Language Oriented Programming
LOP

Nothing
[Nothing :: Maybe a]

It's the type-safe equivalent of a void
pointer (i.e. void *).

Colon
[English]

May be used between independent clauses
when the second sentence explains,
illustrates, paraphrases, or expands on
the first sentence.

Example:
He got what he worked for: he really
earned that promotion.

Semicolon
[English]

Example:
I have a big test tomorrow; I can't go
out tonight.

The two clauses in that sentence are
separated by a semicolon and could be
sentences on their own if you put a period

Macros
[Racket]

Some Racketeers quibble with this term,
preferring syntax transformers, because a
Racket macro can be more sophisticated
than the usual Common Lisp macro.

A popular approach to building recursive
descent parsers in FP.
- model parsers as functions, and
- define higher-order functions (or
combinators) that implement grammar
constructions such as sequencing,
choice, and repetition.

Such parsers form an

http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~pszgmh/monparsing.pdf
$HOME/notes2018/ws/parser-combinators/monparsing.txt Normed Division Algebras: There are exactly four: - real numbers (R), - complex numbers (C), - quaternions (ℍ), and - octonions (O). Software Transactional Memory STM A concurrency control mechanism analogous to database transactions for controlling access to shared memory in concurrent computing. merkle trees A type of data structure. Used by - Git - blockchain git Not an example of blockchain technology. Bult is similar, as are Merkel trees. In a blockchain implementation, every block is verified independently multiple times before it is added to the blockchain. Personal Specific Language PSR Semantic Analysis The process of relating syntactic structures, from the levels of phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs to the level of the writing as a whole, to their language-independent meanings. According to Chen, parsing is the easy part and the semantic analysis is the hard part. TOML Tom's Obvious, Minimal Language [configuration file format] Easy to read. Designed to map unambiguously to a dictionary. Appears to be used often by cargo. toiq$HOME/.cargo/registry/src/github.com-1ecc6299db9ec823/rand-0.4.2/Cargo.toml
toiq $HOME/.cargo/registry/src/github.com-1ecc6299db9ec823/google-somethin-0.1.4/Cargo.toml functor function object A construct allowing an object to be invoked or called as if it were an ordinary function, usually with the same syntax (a function parameter that can also be a function). functor [category theory] A structure-preserving transformation between categories. It's some way to map objects from one category to objects of another category while also preserving the arrows between objects—think of it as a category homomorphism. In a broad sense, a functor is the moral equivalent of a function between categories. endofunctor A functor from one category back to the same category. It maps objects of the category to objects of the same category. The simplest example is the identity functor which maps every object inside a category back to itself; more interesting examples map objects to other objects in the same category. Hot swap The replacement of a hard drive, CD-ROM drive, power supply, or other device with a similar device while the computer system using it remains in operation. The replacement can be because of a device failure or, for storage devices, to substitute other data. Binding A binding is a correspondence between a name and its value. Dynamic Binding All variable names and their values live in one global table. In contrast to "Lexical Binding". Dynamic Binding vs Static Binding Two regimes for handling variable binding. The difference is more subtle than their names imply. Lexical and dynamic binding refer to how variables are looked up by their names. Binding Scope Examples: - function - let syntax Lexical Binding Static Binding Each binding scope creates a new table of variable names and values, organised in a hierarchy called "the environment". In contrast to "Dynamic Binding". coherence time [For an electromagnetic wave] The time over which a propagating wave (especially a laser or maser beam) may be considered coherent. The time interval within which its phase is, on average, predictable. Differentiable Inductive Logic Programming https://towardsdatascience.com/deepmind-combines-logic-and-neural-networks-to-extract-rules-from-noisy-data-2fbd0f6edfb7?fbclid=IwAR2YkK37w8UisGIkeW6i3zHQ69WqWoB3_n2Cbv6NtEteiJru-cAcqw3iZYI$HOME/notes2018/ws/inductive-logic-programming-ilp/1711.04574-edit.txt

Segmentation Fault
segfault
Access violation
A fault, or failure condition, raised by
hardware with memory protection, notifying
an operating system (OS) the software has
attempted to access a restricted area of
memory (a memory access violation).

LFI
Low-Frequency Inhibition
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-C-The-difference-in-arrival-time-of-low-frequency-inhibition-LFI-t1-red-and_fig5_237813895

Nothing to do with problog, I think. 'inhibition' is a coincidence.

HFI
High-Frequency Inhibition
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-C-The-difference-in-arrival-time-of-low-frequency-inhibition-LFI-t1-red-and_fig5_237813895

Nothing to do with problog.

LFI
Learning from interpretations
[problog function]

man problog | grep lfi
lfi: learn parameters from data (see lfi --help)

problog lfi --help | grep Learning
Learning from interpretations with ProbLog

Given a set of words that appear in
documents, we can train a Noisy-OR rule to
determine how strongly a word indicates
that the document has a certain topic.

Applicative vs Normal Order
[#lambda calculus]

ANN
size ∝ expressivity ∝ variance ∝ overfitting

[a] non-deterministic computation
A computation that:

Instead of producing a single result, it
might produce many.

not a pure function.

Turns a non-deterministic computation
(which is not a pure function) into a pure
function one by transforming its result
type from a to a list of a.

In essence, we create a function that
returns all possible results at once.

rank 1 polymorphism
While you can write a function that takes
different types of arguments without this
extension, you can't write a function that
uses its argument as different types in
the same invocation.

rank 2 polymorphism
Provided in haskell with the Rank2Types
extension.

parametric polymorphism
The type truly does not matter (fringe,
for example, really doesn't care what kind
of elements are found in the leaves of a
tree). In Haskell, type classes provide a
structured way to control ad hoc

polymorphism.

Examples:
- The literals 1, 2, etc. are often used
to represent both fixed and arbitrary
precision integers.
- Numeric operators such as + are often
defined to work on many different kinds
of numbers.
- The equality operator (== in Haskell)
usually works on numbers and many other
(but not all) types.

Note that these overloaded behaviors are
different for each type (in fact the
behavior is sometimes undefined, or
error).

This is different from parametric
polymorphism.

The process of transferring files between
two local devices, in particular between a
computer and a mobile device such as a
mobile phone, smartphone, PDA, tablet,

e^x
For any x,
the value of e^x at x ==
area (between curve and y=0)

value (of y) == gradient == area

When writing math to do with calculus, if
you write in terms of e then the math
becomes simpler.

Nonlinearity
A common issue when examining cause-effect
relations.

Such instances require complex modeling
and hypothesis to offer explanations to
nonlinear events.

to random, unforecasted outcomes such as
chaos.

superposition principle
superposition property
For all linear systems, the net response
caused by two or more stimuli is the sum
of the responses that would have been
caused by each stimulus individually.

Simple explanation:
If input A produces response X, and
input B produces response Y, then
input (A + B) produces response (X + Y).

semver
Semantic Version
https://semver.org/

Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH,
increment the:
- MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes,
- MINOR version when you add functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and
- PATCH version when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes.

build metadata are available as extensions
to the MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH format.

Homotopy Type Theory
A new field of study relating Martin-Löf’s
system of intensional, constructive type
theory with abstract homotopy theory.

Propositional equality is interpreted as
homotopy and type isomorphism as homotopy
equivalence.

Logical constructions in type theory then
correspond to homotopy-invariant
constructions on spaces, while theorems
and even proofs in the logical system
inherit a homotopical meaning.

As the natural logic of homotopy,
constructive type theory is also related
to higher category theory as it is used
e.g. in the notion of a higher topos.

Mebibyte
MiB
2^20 bytes

Mebibit
Mibit
2^20 bit
hippocampus
A small organ located within the brain's
medial temporal lobe and forms an
important part of the limbic system, the
region that regulates emotions. The
hippocampus is associated mainly with
memory, in particular long-term memory.
The organ also plays an important role in

Facts:
- lifelong neuron formation in the human
brain's hippocampus

Kia kaha
We stand together.
Stay strong.

A Māori phrase used by the people of New
Zealand as an affirmation, meaning stay
strong.

The phrase has significant meaning for
Māori:
popularised through its usage by the
28th Māori Battalion during World War
II, it is found in titles of books and
songs, as well as a motto.

surprise
The log of the inverse of the probability.

Internationalization
i18n

Localization
l10n

Globalization
g11n

Localizability
l12y

Hoogle
I should make them for everything,
literally.

I need to streamline this process to the
max.

fuzzy search for an rtcmd. all an rtcmd is
is a program that is guaranteed to take
stdin and output stderr.

How guaranteed?

I have to be able to search. To search I
need types.

Need to be able to search for functions
with types.

That's what Hoogle is for.

type declarative search

type declarative search
What Hoogle performs to find functions
based on their types.

GPIO
General Purpose Input Output

percent homology
sequence similarity

orthologous
Homologous sequences are orthologous if
they are inferred to be descended from the
same ancestral sequence separated by a
speciation event:
when a species diverges into two
separate species, the copies of a
single gene in the two resulting
species are said to be orthologous.

Algebraic structures
Provide the operational under-pinnings for
algebraic data types.

What's missing is the static typing
constraints.

Critical Point
A wide term used in a lot of branches of
mathematics, but is always connected to
the derivative of a function or mapping.

Hackage
archive of open source software.

alpha-beta pruning
[search algorithm]

Used by chess bots.

But MCTS does a better job perhaps.

information vs probability
Probability is based on counting
occurrences in n trials as n approaches ∞.

Information is based on average
occurrences of patterns in n trials for
very large n.

car
[operation]

Returns the first element of the list

cdr
[operation]

Returns the rest of the list.

SSA
[basically] a variable graph.
A CodeLingo thing.

We need to change the name because ssa is
really not catching on haha.

It’s like, traversing from a variable
definition to/from a reference. But also,
I don’t think you need to be in this
conversation haha - your local platform is
actually higher priority!

periodic sequence
cycle
A sequence for which the same terms are
repeated over and over: a1, a2, ..., ap,
a1, a2, ..., ap, a1, a2, ..., ap, ...

period
p
The number of repeated terms in a periodic
sequence.

particle horizon

Surprisal
Self-Information
Information or surprisal for an outcome.

event horizon [of the universe]
The limit of the visible future.

partical horizon [of the universe]
The limit of the visible past.

geodesic
A curve representing in some sense the
shortest path between two points in a
surface.

When I was thinking about what the most
fundamental part of a circle is, I was

conjecture
A conclusion or proposition based on
incomplete information, for which no proof
has been found.

Examples
- Riemann hypothesis
- Fermat's Last Theorem

Maybe Type

The Maybe type is also a monad.

It is a simple kind of error monad, where
all errors are represented by Nothing.

A richer error monad can be built using
the Either type.

go
weiqi

[game]

Pronounced 'wei-chi'.

aphantasia
Inability visualise mental images at all.

complete graph
A simple undirected graph in which every
pair of distinct vertices is connected by
a unique edge.

A complete digraph is a directed graph in
which every pair of distinct vertices is
connected by a pair of unique edges (one
in each direction).

disjoint union [of two sets]
A binary operator that combines all
distinct elements of a pair of given sets,
while retaining the original set
membership as a distinguishing
characteristic of the union set.

clustering coefficient
A measure of the degree to which nodes in
a graph tend to cluster together.

git worktree
A git repository can support multiple
working trees, allowing you to check out
more than one branch at a time.

A monad that does not perform any work
during the normalization step beyond
simply grafting the two monadic values
together.

Skolemization

satisfiability and validity
satisfiability and validity are elementary
concepts of semantics.

validity
[of a function]

A formula is valid if all interpretations
make the formula true.

satisfiable
[of a function]

It is possible to find an interpretation
that makes the formula true.

existential quantifier
∃...
A logical constant which is interpreted as
"there exists", "there is at least one",
or "for some".

\exists {n}{\in }\mathbb {N} \,P(n,n,25)

Skolem normal form
SNF
Reduction to SNF is a method for removing
existential quantifiers from formal logic
statements.

The first step in an automated theorem
prover.

A formula of first-order logic is in
Skolem normal form if it is in prenex
normal form with only universal
first-order quantifiers.

first-order language
Its interpretation assigns a denotation to
each non-logical symbol in that language,
and determines a domain of discourse, D,
that specifies the range of the
quantifiers.

domain of discourse
D
A nonempty set of "objects" of some kind.

first-order formula
A statement about the objects in a domain
of discourse.

Example:
∃xP(x)
The existence of an object x such that
the predicate P is true where referred
to it.

Skolemization
Every first-order formula may be converted
into SNF while not changing its
satisfiability via a process called
Skolemization. The resulting formula is
not necessarily equivalent to the original
one, but is equisatisfiable with it.

equisatisfiable
Satisfiable if and only if the original
one is satisfiable.

forms
- former
earlier form
- latter
later form
- first form
- second form
- last form

Sequence Similarity Search
Homology Search
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820096/

Can identify ”homologous” proteins or
genes by detecting excess similarity –
statistically significant similarity that
reflects common ancestry.

This unit provides an overview of the
inference of homology from significant
similarity, and introduces other units in
this chapter that provide more details on
effective strategies for identifying
homologs.

* homology search
- homolog search (sequences that share a common evolutionary ancestor)
- inference of functional similarity from homology

The relationship between homology
(structure) and function is complex.

Homology is inferred from significant
similarity.

Then you need to connect homology to more
accurate functional prediction.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820096/

homology
[theory]

A general way of associating a sequence of
algebraic objects such as abelian groups
or modules to other mathematical objects
such as topological spaces.

cohomology
[noun]
A sequence of abelian groups associated to
a topological space, often defined from a
cochain complex.

[verb]
A method of assigning richer algebraic
invariants to a space than homology.

abelian group
commutative group
[a type of group]

A groups that obeys the axiom of
commutativity.

Applying the group operation to two group
elements results in the same thing no
matter the order in which they are
written.

cochain complex
Similar to a chain complex, except that
convention.

The homology of a cochain complex is
called its cohomology.

realism
The universe exists independent of the
mind of the observer.

Quantum Mechanics still has scientists
wondering if we should reject this premise.

special relativity

general relativity
Extends special relativity to include
gravity and its effects on spacetime.

Category theory
The algebraic theory of the "types" and
"functions" you find in any typed formal
languauge.

Officially, category theory calls the
types "objects" and functions "morphisms"
so as to avoid treading on the
but increasingly I see category theorists
throwing such caution to the wind and
using the more intuitive terms:
- "type" and
- "function"

bisociation
bisociative
The simultaneous mental association of an
idea or object with two fields ordinarily
not regarded as related the pun is perhaps
the simplest form of bisociation.

recommender systems
Both association rules and collaborative
filtering can be used for building
fundamentally different questions.

collaborative filtering
[algorithm]

- What items do users with interests
similar to yours like?

Used in recommender system.

association rules
[algorithm]

- What items do frequently appear
together?

Used in recommender system.

Algorithms:
- a-priori

text simplification
Not the same as summarization.

Consists of:
- syntactic simplification
- lexical simplification
- explanation generation

visceral
relating to deep inward feelings rather
than to the intellect.

Example:
"the voters' visceral fear of change"

portmanteau
Hackett is a portmanteau of haskell and
racket.

Jsonnet is a portmanteau of JSON and
sonnet.

Theory of patches
The math behind exchanging patches.

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Understanding_Darcs/Patch_theory

hyperparameter
A parameter whose value is used to control
the learning process.

By contrast, the values of other
parameters (typically node weights) are
derived via training.

learning the parameters of a model
parameter learning
Given a set of data cases or observations
and a model structure, one can infer the
distribution over the model parameters,
found for instance in the conditional
probability table1 in the clique
potentials, in the mapping, or the
transition probabilities.

Does not differ from inference in Bayesian
probability theory, so the reasons for
studying them separately are mostly
practical.

For instance in the EM algorithm, the
updates of parameters and latent variables
are done separately and in different ways.

[Typed Racket]

Lets you add types after you've been
working in untyped mode.

Apriori Algorithm
[Association Rule Mining]

https://blog.usejournal.com/association-rule-mining-apriori-algorithm-c517f8d7c54c

Support
[Association Rule Mining]

An indication of how frequently the items
appear in the data.

n_(X,Y) = number of transactions containing both X and Y
n       = Total number of transations

n_(X,Y)
Support({X} -> {Y}) = -------
n

n_X     = number of transactions X appears in

n_X
supp(X) = ---
n

Example:
support of onions
support(onion) = 4/6

Confidence
[Association Rule Mining]

Indicates the number of times the if-then
statements are found true.

n_(X,Y) = number of transactions containing both X and Y
n_X     = number number of transations containing X

n_(X,Y)
Confidence({X} -> {Y}) = -------
n_X

You can also work out the confidence from
the support.

supp(XUY)
conf(X->Y) = ---------
supp(X)

Lift
[Association Rule Mining]

Can be used to compare confidence with expected confidence.

n_(X,Y) = number of transactions containing both X and Y
n_X     = number of transations containing X
∝_(Y)   = Fraction of transactions containing Y

n_(X,Y) / n_X
Lift({X} -> {Y}) = -------------
∝_(Y)

backtrace
stack backtrace
stacktrace
A summary of how your program got where it
is.

BSON
The binary encoding of JSON-like documents
that MongoDB uses when storing documents
in collections.

black hole gravity assist
If you try to approach a black hole
through elliptical orbit where the "near
pass" speed would exceed speed of light if
counted in Newton and Kepler way,
obviously that won't work.

Instead of speed that would counteract the
centripetal force of gravity of the black
hole, you'll start gaining mass, and that
will make the black hole's gravitational
pull on you so much stronger.

"Falling", instead of speeding up you keep
gaining weight, and so the gravity pull
grows not only with waning distance but
with your kinetic energy growing - until
the inevitable demise.

engram
A hypothetical permanent change in the
brain accounting for the existence of
memory; a memory trace.

Theorized to be means by which memories
are stored as biophysical or biochemical
changes in the brain in response to
external stimuli. The existence of engrams
is posited by some scientific theories to
explain the persistence of memory and how
memories are stored in the brain.

lisp-case
spinal-case
kebab-case

Train-Case

regex variants
oniguruma
Generally fast, but has the
possibility of running slowly if
you're "unlucky" with a particular
regexp. that's because it's a
backtracking algorithm.

re2
generally a little slower that
oniguruma, but it doesn't have the
same risk - its time will never[*]
explode in the same way (it doesn't
have worst case exponential
behaviour).

PCRE2
https://www.pcre.org/current/doc/html/pcre2.html

shannon entropy vs liklihood
The better model is the one that is more
likely to produce the data i.e. has
maximum liklihood.

The better model is the one that has
Maximum Entropy for what it does not
explain.

thermodynamic entropy
entropy
[physics]

Entropy is not disorder.

Microstates

Macrostates

Total internal reflection
Total internal reflection is the
phenomenon that makes the water-to-air
surface in a fish-tank look like a
perfectly silvered mirror when viewed from
below the water level.

Fine Structure Constant

A hyper parameter for the universe.

Determines the amount of energy required
for an elecron to change energy level,
among other things.

complement
[#set theory]

The complement of a set A refers to
elements not in A.

red herring
A clue or piece of information which is or
is intended to be misleading or
distracting.

Something that misleads or distracts from
a relevant or important question. It may
be either a logical fallacy or a literary
toward a false conclusion.

Thelemic mysticism
A complex mystical path designed to do two
interrelated things:
to learn one's unique True Will and to
achieve union with the All.

PHP is Thelemaic

SCM
Source Control Management
VCS
Version Control System

quasiquote
backtick notation
redundant in modern scheme.
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/15849995/given-the-powerful-macro-system-are-quote-and-quasiquote-redundant-in-moder

racket
emacs-lisp
common-lisp

(1 ,@(list 1 2) 4)

racket
(quasiquote (0 (unquote-splicing (list 1 2)) 4))

Liesel
That's her name! Don't forget it!

Étendue
A property of light in an optical system,
which characterizes how "spread out" the
light is in area and angle.

Conservation of Étendue
https://worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/124957/would-turning-the-planet-mercury-into-a-giant-mirror-be-a-good-way-to-heat-the-o

You cannot gather light from a wide cone,
and then send it out into a thin beam.

This means that whatever light you reflect
off of Mercury, when it reaches Neptune
that light covers an area that is 75 time
larger than the Sun, in effect 75 times
weaker per unit of surface area than what
hits Mercury.

Verifiable Delay Function
VDF
[puzzle]

The solution can only be found after a
certain number of steps.

Because VDFs can also be used to create
unbiased randomness, they’ve been proposed
as potential approaches to improve the
security and scalability of blockchain
systems like Ethereum and Filecoin.

regex
regular algebra
Comes from Neuroscience.

It was considered at the time that this
was the closest thing to mimicking the
human brain.

It could find things, like finding a
needle in a haystack.

regular set
The symbols used in a regular expression.

Fail-safe
A device will not endanger lives or
property when it fails.

Fail-secure
Fail-closed
Access or data will not fall into the
wrong hands in a security failure.

Serverless
[architecture]

Uses either:
- Backend as a Service (BaaS)
- Functions as a Service (FaaS)

(?{...})
- perlre code in matcher
- custom predicates

Inside a (?{...}) block
- $_ The string the regular expression is matching against. - pos() The current position of matching within this string. (??{ code }) Return value is treated as a pattern rather than assigned to$^R.

Taint checking
[feature of some programming languages]

Increase security by preventing malicious
users from executing commands on a host
computer.

Checks any of (but not limited to):
- SQL injection
- buffer overflow attack
- perlre embedded user code

$_ topic default variable [perl syntax] three main combinatoric primitives - k-tuples (rarely called variations), - permutations, and - cobminations Church encoding A means of representing data and operators in the lambda calculus Prions Misfolded versions of a protein. Can pread like an infection by forcing normal copies of that protein into the same self-propagating, misfolded shape. PrP The original prion backtracking For a regular expression to match, the entire regular expression must match, not just part of it. So if the beginning of a pattern containing a quantifier succeeds in a way that causes later parts in the pattern to fail, the matching engine backs up and recalculates the beginning part--that's why it's called backtracking. P versus NP problem A major unsolved problem in computer science. Does every problem whose solution can be verified in polynomial time can also be solved in polynomial time? solution-verifiable in O(n^k) => solvable in O(n^k)? Does solution-verifiable in polynomial time imply that it is solvable in polynomial time also? Continuously compounding 100% interest. 100% interest calculated once is 2x. 100% compound interest with 2 intervals is 2.25x. 100% compound interest with 3 intervals is 2.37x. 100% compound interest with ∞ intervals is . Cross-validation [technique] Evaluate: - estimator performance - predictive models Partitioning the original sample into: - a training set to train the model, and - a test set to evaluate it. Weyl Invariance [invariance] Invariance under local changes in scale. Sequence Chunker Phrase chunking [basic NLP task] Tag word-ngrams syntactically. The quick brown fox jumped over the fence | | | | Noun Verb Prep Noun The quick brown fox is a single token/gram. Noun-Phrase NP [phrase] Has a noun (or pronoun) as its head and zero or more dependent modifiers. The most frequently occurring phrase type and its inner segmentation is critical for understanding the semantics of the Noun-Phrase. Semantic Segmentation [algorithm] MLP classifier. Build a semantic hierarchy that represents the semantic meaning. Eventually creates a tree Eeach tier represent a semantic meaning If a sequence of words is a collocation then a collocation tier is created, else the elements are broken down and each one is mapped to different tier in the tree. I2C [interface] [bus] A colourful cable; black, red, white yellow. Each I2C bus consists of two signals: - SCL (the clock signal) , and - SDA (the data signal). black cable ground red cable current laplacian Laplace operator sign function signum function An odd mathematical function that extracts the sign of a real number. In mathematical expressions the sign function is often represented as sgn. 1 if positive -1 if negative Connectionist Temporal Classification CTC [loss function] egr list of loss functions divergence [of different vector fields] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAXyLhvZ-Vg The divergence of vectors from point (x,y) equals the sum of the partial derivative-with-respect-to-x of the x-component and the partial derivative-with-respect-to-y of the y-component at that point (let-point ((p (x,y))) (== (divergence-of-vectors-from-point p) (sum-of the-partial-derivative-with-respect-to-x-of-the-x-component the-partial-derivative-with-respect-to-y-of-the-y-component :at-point p))) recursive-descent recursive-descent parser recursive-descent parser generator Partial Derivative ∂ As opposed to 'd' for derivative. Mean absolute error The average of sum of absolute differences between predictions and actual observations. Like MSE, this as well measures the magnitude of error without considering their direction. Unlike MSE, MAE needs more complicated tools such as linear programming to compute the gradients. Plus MAE is more robust to outliers since it does not make use of square. permute This means 'rearrange', not 'enumerate rearrangements'. Electrophysiology The branch of physiology that pertains broadly to the flow of ions (ion current) in biological tissues and, in particular, to the electrical recording techniques that enable the measurement of this flow. lexically scoped Something in the textual environment of the expression determines the identifier’s binding. model pruning Makes a model fast and small. Among the many parameters in the network, some are redundant and don’t contribute a lot to the output. Important for running deep learning networks on smaller devices. Tensor rank decomposition Generalization of the matrix singular value decomposition (SVD) to tensors. model optimisation https://www.tensorflow.org/lite/performance/model_optimization - pruning and structured pruning. Reduce parameter count - quantization Reduce representational precision - Update the original model topology to a more efficient one with reduced parameters or faster execution. For example: - tensor decomposition methods - distillation model weights pruning Force some of the weights of the model to zero while training. Results in a sparse model. [To prune, or not to prune: exploring the efficacy of pruning for model compression](https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.01878) Weight Quantization Post Training A general technique to reduce model size while also providing up to 3x lower latency with little degradation in model accuracy. Post-training quantization quantizes weights from floating point to 8-bits of precision. bloom filter [space-efficient probabilistic data structure] Test whether an element is a member of a set. space-efficient. GNU arch Superceded by GNU Bazaar. correctness [of an algorithm] asserted when it is said that the algorithm is correct with respect to a specification. Functional correctness for each input it produces the expected output. partial correctness vs total correctness They both mean if an answer is returned it will be correct. Total means the algorithm also terminates. ∵ No general solution to the halting problem, a total correctness assertion may lie much deeper. termination proof A type of mathematical proof that plays a critical role in formal verification because total correctness of an algorithm depends on termination. manifold (or (or pipe pipage piping) paper (or mathematical space topological space)) full-text extraction - Extracting entities Such as companies, people, dollar amounts, key initiatives, etc. - Categorizing content Positive or negative (e.g. sentiment analysis), by function, intention or purpose, or by industry or other categories for analytics and trending. - Clustering content To identify main topics of discourse and/or to discover new topics. - Fact extraction To fill databases with structured information for analysis, visualization, trending, or alerts. - Relationship extraction To fill out graph databases to explore real-world relationships. Anaphoric An expression who's interpretation depends on its antecedent or postcedent. Anaphoric form of ‘-map’. kubernetes k8s An open-source container orchestration system for automating application deployment, scaling, and management. It was originally designed by Google, and is now maintained by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. partial function [haskell] A function that is not defined for all possible arguments of the specified type. Examples: - head, tail Undefined for empty lists. - (!!) Undefined if the index is at least as big as the list length. - div Undefined if the divisor is zero. The opposite is a total function. Avoid partial functions and instead write total ones. Makes "if your code compiles, it probably works" true for your code more often. Usually if you have a partial function, it's because your types are incorrect and you should fix your types rather than writing partial functions which guarantee the impossible. A good example of this is head. You shouldn't use this function or write functions like it. The problem is in the type, it says [a] -> a which is actually impossible as far as total functions are concerned. Why? Because you might have an empty list! Instead, a more honest type that lets you write a total function would be [a] -> Maybe a. This makes the possibility of not getting a result more explicit and keeps your functions total. You almost never have an excuse for writing a partial function! There are methods to avoid the use of partial functions. Example: head :: [h] -> h -- 'head' is a function. list -> element. -- what is the relevance of 'a'? It could be anything? head [] = error "head: empty list" -- [], therefore error head (x:_) = x -- The empty list case errors. -- If the list is empty, it panics. total function [haskell] Opposite of a partial function. continuation An abstract representation of the control state of a computer program. A data structure that represents the computational process at a given point in the process's execution control flow The order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated. Explicit control flow distinguishes an imperative programming language from a declarative programming language. control state Reification The process by which an abstract idea about a computer program is turned into an explicit data model or other object created in a programming language. verb: reifies Genetic Search - Generate initial population of states, - prune those states under a threshold that have the lowest values using a fitness function. - Randomly combine the survivors, - mutate a couple of bits - evaluate fitness - repeat preposition Literally, "pre-position" -- it's a word that expects another word to follow. A word such as after, in, to, on, and with. Prepositions are usually used in front of nouns or pronouns and they show the relationship between the noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence adverb Like a decorator for a phrase. An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, determiner, clause, preposition, or sentence. Typically express manner, place, time, frequency, degree, level of certainty, etc., answering questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to what extent? uninformed search Used when there is no information about the cost of navigating between states. Examples: - DFS - IDFS - BFS informed search Used when we know the cost or have a solid estimate of the cost between states. Examples: - UCF - A* - IDA* Best-first search [graph search algorithm] - Orders all partial solutions (states) according to some heuristic, then - expands the most promising node chosen according to a specified rule. Examples - A* early stopping Stopping the training once your loss starts to increase (or in other words validation accuracy starts to decrease). GRU Gated Recurrent Unit RNN with GRU Gated Recurrent Neural Networks Tensor2Tensor T2T beam search [heuristic search algorithm] [best-first search algorithm] egr andrew ng beam - greedy Only a predetermined number of best partial solutions are kept as candidates. End Of Sentence E.O.S. Google Dialogflow - intents, - entities, and - context complimentary properties Measure one perfectly and you lose all information about the other. boba tapioca pearls https://www.mydomaine.com/what-is-boba Oxidiser Any chemicals that cause the ignition of combustible materials without an external source of ignition. multidimensional integrals Typically intractable analytically. Bayesian analysis Involves multidimensional integrals. Multi-agent system MAS Self-organized system Agents and their environment. Artificial Intelligence -- A Modern Approach. Agents - Passive agents or "agent without goals" Obstacle, apple or key in any simple simulation. - Active agents with simple goals Like birds in flocking, or wolf–sheep in prey-predator model. - Cognitive agents Complex calculations. Types: - methodic - functional - procedural approaches - algorithmic search - reinforcement learning Grand Unified Theory [model in particle physics] At high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model that define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into a single force. Grand Unified Representation FSM Finite State Machine regex Principal Component Analysis PCA SVD [ML algorithm] Basic. Reduce the dimensionality of the data, losing the least amount of information. InPCA Intensive PCA ewwlinks +/"We introduce Intensive Principal Component Analysis" "https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/06/21/1817218116" Natural Vector Overdetermined system of equations The number of equations exceeds the number of unknowns. Curve fitting The process of constructing a curve, or mathematical function, that has the best fit to a series of data points, possibly subject to constraints. - The sum of sines model Fits periodic functions. - Least squares Least Squares Minimizing the sum of squares of deviations of some functions from the desired variables. Purpose - curve fitting - “solving” overdetermined systems of equations: Find solutions in the case of ordinary (not overdetermined) nonlinear systems of equations, as well as to approximate the point values of a certain function. Polynomial regression [1. form of regression analysis] [2. model] The relationship between the independent variable x and the dependent variable y is modelled as an nth degree polynomial in x. Fits a nonlinear relationship between the value of x and the corresponding conditional mean of y, denoted E(y |x), and has been used to describe nonlinear phenomena such as the growth rate of tissues, the distribution of carbon isotopes in lake sediments, and the progression of disease epidemics. Sum of Sines Models Includes the phase constant. linear/logistic regression [Linear model] Optimisation methods - L-BFGS - SGD - Adam SVM [Linear model] Has a margin-based loss function. Can optimize the loss function using optimization methods. One unique thing that SVMs can do is to study classifier classifiers. Used for: - training classifiers (even regressors). non-linearities - sigmoid, - tanh, - relu + softmax - selu (cool new) Autoencoder Learns without a teacher. Multilayer perceptron Feed-Forward Neural Network FFNN Basically, these are multi-level logistic regression classifiers. Many layers of scales are separated by non-linearities. Can be used for as autoencoders. Can be used to train a classifier or extract functions as autoencoders. RNN aggregator TF-IDF Doesn’t preserve the context of each word in the sentences. BOW Treats each word separately and encoding each of the words. We can use TF-IDF with BOW. Sentence classification 2 ways - Bag of words model (BOW) - Deep neural network models For beter results. E.g. tasks: - Named Entity Extraction - Sentiment analysis Named-entity Examples: - person's name - name of an organisation - name of a location - medical code - time expression - quantity - percentage Natural language generation NLG syntactic constituents - sentences - phrases Semantic Aggregation [subtask of NLG] Merging syntactic constituents together. Sometimes aggregation can be done at a conceptual level. Bi-LSTM https://towardsdatascience.com/sentence-classification-using-bi-lstm-b74151ffa565 Bidirectional. asterisk at end of function name A variant function that handles multiple input arguments or multiple return values uses the same name, but suffixed with *. regexp-match vs. regexp-match* progress last 2 years can train models more efficiently more variants of models BLEU score perfect match = 1.0 perfect mismatch = 0.0 vimlinks +/"BLEU score in NMT" https://ricardokleinklein.github.io/2017/11/16/Attention-is-all-you-need.html Decision tree regression Decision tree (misnomer) Builds a regression or classification model in the form of a tree structure. Break down a dataset into smaller and smaller subsets while at the same time an associated decision tree is incrementally developed. Result: Tree with decision nodes and leaf nodes. Example: A decision node (e.g., Outlook) has two or more branches (e.g., Sunny, Overcast and Rainy), each representing values for the attribute tested. Leaf node (e.g., Hours Played) represents a decision on the numerical target. The topmost decision node in a tree which corresponds to the best predictor called root node. Decision trees can handle both categorical and numerical data. Standard Deviation Reduction Based on the decrease in standard deviation after a dataset is split on an attribute. Constructing a decision tree is all about finding attribute that returns the highest standard deviation reduction (i.e., the most homogeneous branches). Learning rate But the best learning rate in general is one that decreases as the model approaches a solution (minimum to the loss function). Hyperparameters - learning rate decay Learning rate decay Used to decrease the learning rate as epochs go by to allow learning to advance faster at the beginning with larger learning rates. batch size [#machine learning] The number of training examples utilized in one iteration. The batch size can be one of three options: - batch mode: batch size = size(total dataset) Thus iteration = epoch value. - mini-batch mode: batch size > 1, but batch size < size(total dataset) Usually, a number that can be divided into the total dataset size. - stochastic mode: batch size = 1 Therefore the gradient and the neural network parameters are updated after each sample. epoch [#deep learning] ewwlinks +/"When all the batches are fed exactly once you complete what is called an epoch." "https://www.quora.com/What-is-epochs-in-machine-learning" Suppose that you want to train a machine learning model with some data. That data you call training data. Now, the thing is that for huge sets of training data you cannot feed the whole bunch to your model at once due to limitations in computer memory. So, what you do is break up your whole training data set into sizeable batches which can fit into your computer’s memory at once. You then feed these batches one by one to your model for training. When all the batches are fed exactly once you complete what is called an epoch. Basically it is equivalent to showing your model the whole training data bunch once. Now, you have to carry this one multiple times for successful training, hence, multiple epochs. Momentum vim +/"stuck in a local minimum" "$HOME/notes2018/problems-and-solutions.txt"

Pushes your output towards global optimum.

Too big or too small will ruin everything.

Changes the path you take to the optimum.

It helps overcome local optimum (If you
get stuck).

example:
If you have an objective function, you
have to decide how to move around on it.

Steepest descent on the gradient is the
simplest approach, but fluctuations could
be a big problem.

Adding momentum helps solve that problem.

NOTE: High momentum should always be
accompanied by low learning rate, else you
will overshoot the global optimum.

In my opinion the momentum should be more
adaptive than constant. Sometimes you may
be revolving around the global optimum.
Recognizing that and changing your
momentum is tough but a smart choice.

Computes individual learning rates for
different parameters.

[optimiser]

Its name is derived from adaptive moment
estimation, and the reason it’s called
that is because Adam uses estimations of
first and second moments of gradient to
adapt the learning rate for each weight of
the neural network.

Now, what is moment ?

N-th moment of a random variable is
defined as the expected value of that
variable to the power of n.

Training with SGD
- Randomly initialise the weights to small
numbers close to 0 (but not 0).

- Input the first observation of your
dataset in the input layer, each feature
in one input node.

- Forward propagation
- The neurons are activated in a way
that the impact of each neuron's
activation is limited by the weights.
- Propagate the activations until
getting the predicted result y.

- Compare the predicted result to the
actual result. Measure the generated
error.

- Back-propagation:
from right to left, the error is
back-propagated. Update the weights
according to how much they are
responsibile for the error.

- 2 next steps:
- Reinforcement learning
Repeat steps 1 to 5 and update the
weights after each observation.
- Batch learning
Repeat steps 1 to 5 and update the
weights only after a batch of
observations.

- When the whowle training set passed
through the ANN, that makes an epoch.
Redo more epochs.

Optimiser
Used to minimise the error rate.

Two metrics to determine the efficacy of
an optimizer:
- speed of convergence
(the process of reaching a global
- generalization
(the model’s performance on new data).

Word Embedding Language Divergence
WELD
Divergence between unified similarity
distribution of words between languages.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.08561v1

C-H logic correspondence
Curry–Howard correspondence
Curry–Howard isomorphism
Curry–Howard equivalence
proofs-as-programs interpretation
propositions-as-types interpretation
formulae-as-types interpretation
The direct relationship between computer
programs and mathematical proofs.

(l:l1) ++ l2 = l : (l1 ++ l2)

bijective
bijection
bijective function
one-to-one correspondence
A function between the elements of two
sets, where each element of one set is
paired with exactly one element of the
other set, and each element of the other
set is paired with exactly one element of
the first set.

category theory
More general that abstract algebra.

differentiable programming

Programs can be differentiated throughout,
usually via automatic differentiation.

Allows for gradient based optimization of
parameters in the program, often via

As a big picture, I really believe that a
purely functional typed approach to
differentiable programming is the way to
move forward in the future for models like
artificial neural networks.

fixed-point combinator
fixpoint combinator
[higher-order function]

For any function f with some fixed point
x, returns an unchanged x for that f.

endofunctor
A functor from one category back to the
same category.

It maps objects of the category to objects
of the same category.

The simplest example is the identity
functor which maps every object inside a
category back to itself; more interesting
examples map objects to other objects in
the same category.

Examples:
- identity functor

Interesting because they do a good job of
representing structures inside categories
that work for any object.

Among other things, this is very useful
for programming. The Haskell Functor class
represents endofunctors on the category of
includes pretty much every generic
container among other things.

piezoelectric crystal
Examples
- quartz
The first one to be discovered.

Photochromism
Photochromatic
Changes color when exposed to light.

strange loop
A cyclic structure that goes through
several levels in a hierarchical system.

It arises when, by moving only upwards or
downwards through the system, one finds
oneself back where one started.

Is the universe a strange loop?

The concept of a strange loop was proposed
and extensively discussed by Douglas
Hofstadter in Gödel, Escher, Bach, and is
further elaborated in Hofstadter's book I
Am a Strange Loop, published in 2007.

Oceanic Anoxic Event 2
OAE 2
Took place around the Cenomanian–Turonian
boundary (∼94 Ma), is associated with
extreme perturbations to the global carbon
cycle, affected ocean basins worldwide and
was associated with significant biological
turnover.

Although this event has been well studied
in the northern hemisphere, the evolution
and character of OAE 2, particularly in
terms of the vertical and lateral extent
of anoxia, is poorly constrained in the
palaeo-Pacific Ocean.

Furthermore, the precise timing, duration
and character of this event, and the exact
mechanisms driving OAE 2 environmental
changes, are still being debated.

lithology
lithologies
The study of rocks.

The character of a rock formation.

A rock formation having a particular set
of characteristics.

Magnetic susceptibility [of a material]
dimensionless

A proportionality constant.

Indicates the degree of magnetization of a
material in response to an applied
magnetic field.

Sophie's paper (not the thesis)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X19302328

Present
- high-resolution records of:
- carbon isotopes,
- total organic carbon, and
- magnetic susceptibility

from the southern palaeo-Pacific Ocean
during OAE 2, sampled at two sections in
New Zealand.

The carbon isotope records from both
localities reveal a ∼2‰ positive excursion
that represents the global change in the
carbon cycle associated with OAE 2.

When combined with a cyclostratigraphic
age model, these new records constrain the
duration of the OAE 2 carbon isotope
excursion to at least 930 ± 25 ky and
indicate a minimum duration of 200 ± 25 ky
for the ‘Plenus Cold Event’ that took
place during OAE 2.

The lithologies and low organic-carbon
contents of the New Zealand sections imply
that oxic conditions prevailed along, at
least parts of, the margins of the palaeo-
Pacific Ocean at mid- to high southern
latitudes during OAE 2 while,
contemporaneously, conditions were locally
anoxic in the mid-water column of the
equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Despite these apparently oxic conditions
in the New Zealand region, there was a
partial collapse of benthic ecosystems
leading up to, and during, OAE 2,
suggesting environmental deterioration
caused by intermittent oxygen deprivation,
or other chemical or biological
disturbances in the South Pacific region
that remain to be elucidated.

purity
checkSufficientBalanceForTransaction :: User -> Amount -> Result

This function does not carry an IO
label you know it cannot access the
Internet, that it cannot read any
files, and that it cannot by itself
have any visible effect on the world.

You are guaranteed that all it can do
is access the data that is passed in
(the User whose balance is to be
checked, and the Amount the user would
like to send) and return a Result that
says whether the user's balance is
sufficient.

bipartite
2 parts

Bipartite Graph
A graph whose vertices can be divided into
two disjoint and independent sets.

Maximum Bipartite Matching
A matching in a Bipartite Graph is a set
of the edges chosen in such a way that no
two edges share an endpoint.

A maximum matching is a matching of
maximum size (maximum number of edges).

In a maximum matching, if any edge is
added to it, it is no longer a matching.

There can be more than one maximum
matchings for a given Bipartite Graph.

moving-average
MA
[model]

Autoregressive [model]
Autoregressive [process]
AR
[#statistics]
[#econometrics]
[#signal processing]

Example:
- transformer

Autoregression is a time series model that
uses observations from previous time steps
as input to a regression equation to
predict the value at the next time step.
It is a very simple idea that can result
in accurate forecasts on a range of time
series problems.

The autoregressive model specifies that
the output variable depends linearly on
its own previous values and on a
stochastic term (an imperfectly
predictable term); thus the model is in
the form of a stochastic difference
equation.

Every output sequence depends not only on
the input, but also on previous outputs.

Stochastic calculations in which future
values are estimated based on a weighted
sum of past values.

A representation of a type of random
process; as such, it is used to describe
certain time-varying processes in nature,
economics, etc.

autoregressive property
"Autoregressive models decompose the joint
density as a product of conditionals, and
model each conditional in turn.
Normalizing flows transform a base density
(e.g. a standard Gaussian) into the target
density by an invertible transformation
with tractable Jacobian."

In other words, the "autoregressive
property" is equivalent to the
decomposition:

p(x) = prod{ p(x[i] | x[0:i]) : i=0, ..., d }.

The provided shift_and_log_scale_fn,
achieves this property by zeroing out

Practically speaking:
There exists a permutation of the
event coordinates such that each
coordinate is a diffeomorphic function
of only preceding coordinates.

flow network
transportation network
[#graph theory]

[directed graph]

Each edge
- has a capacity

The amount of flow on an edge cannot
exceed the capacity of the edge.

combinator
A function or definition with no free
variables.

A pure lambda-expression that refers only
to its arguments.

Examples:
\a -> a
\a -> \b -> a
\f -> \a -> \b -> f b a

Boomerang
[language]

For writing lenses.

lens
Well-behaved bidirectional transformation.

Operates on ad-hoc, textual data formats.

Every lens program, when read from left to
right, describes a function that maps an
input to an output; when read from right
to left, the very same program describes a
"backwards" function that maps a modified
output, together with the original input,
back to a modified input.

lens
lenses

https://github.com/ekmett/lens#lens-lenses-folds-and-traversals

Control.Lens
The combinators in Control.Lens provide a
highly generic toolbox for composing
families of getters, folds, isomorphisms,
traversals, setters and lenses and their
indexed variants.

arrow

A new abstract view of computation.

They serve much the same purpose as
monads -- providing a common structure for
libraries -- but are more general.

In particular they allow notions of
computation that may be partially static
(independent of the input) or may take
multiple inputs.

If your application works fine with
monads, you might as well stick with
them.

But if you're using a structure that's
very like a monad, but isn't one, maybe
it's an arrow.

Most importantly:
There are more things which are arrows
than there are things which are

Monads are strictly more powerful than
arrows.

Is an arrow equipped with an apply
function of type

(a ~> b, a) ~> b

where (~>) is the constructor for a
given arrow.

This destroys the meticulous
distinction arrows maintain between
terms and commands (or, if you prefer,
objects and morphisms).

Explanation:
You have an innermost monad (usually
Identity or IO but you can use any

around this monad to make bigger,

Similar to a regular monad, but it's not a
the behaviour of an underlying monad.

Most of the monads in the mtl library have
transformer equivalents.

By convention, the transformer version of
a monad has the same name, with a T stuck
on the end.

For example, the transformer equivalent of
State is StateT; it adds mutable state to

The WriterT monad transformer makes it
possible to write data when stacked on top

Continuous Bag of Words approach
Word embeddings for each word in the
sentence are aggregated to represent the
entire sentence as a single vector.

Achieves very respectable results in many

Squaring the Triangle
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TriangleSquaring.html

beta reduction
β reduction
The process of calculating a result from
the application of a function to an
expression.

Example
Suppose we apply the function

(\x -> 2*x*x + y)

to the value 7.

To calculate the result, we substitute
7 for every occurrence of x, and so
the application of the function

(\x -> 2*x*x + y)(7)

is reduced to the result

2*7*7 + y

This is a beta reduction.

Rasa Stack
[#rasa]

AI assistants have to fulfill two tasks:
- understanding the user, and
Rasa NLU
- giving the correct responses.
Rasa Core

Rasa NLU
[#rasa]

Language Understanding for chatbots and AI assistants
https://rasa.com/docs/nlu/

An open-source natural language processing
tool for intent classification and entity
extraction in chatbots.

fallback behaviour
- ask the user to rephrase if confidence is low

Confidence and Fallback Intents
[#Rasa NLU]

Each pipeline:
- Reports a confidence score
- Reports a predicted intent

The CRFEntityExtractor component will do
the same for the extracted entities.

Confidence Cutoff
Choosing a confidence cutoff:
- calculate the model’s confidence on a
test set, and compare the confidence
values on the correctly and incorrectly
predicted examples.

confidence score
Not a true probability that the prediction
is correcty.

A metric.

Defined by the model.

Approximately describes how similar the
input was to the training data.

Use the confidence score to choose when to
ignore Rasa NLU’s prediction and trigger
fallback behaviour, for example asking the
user to rephrase. If you are using Rasa
Core, you can do this using a Fallback
Policy.

Fixed point [of a function]
fixpoint
invariant point
An element of the function's domain that
is mapped to itself by the function.

c is a fixed point of the function f(x) if:
f(c) = c.

[data type]

Considered harmful:

What they are:
The above links are so nice in eww.

Given a functor f gives us a monad Free f
monad we can get for that functor).

type families

lexicographic order
lexicographical order
lexical order
dictionary order
alphabetical order
lexicographic(al) product
A generalization of the way words are
alphabetically ordered based on the
alphabetical order of their component
letters.

DRY [programming]
Don't Repeat Yourself

anachronism
A thing belonging or appropriate to a
period other than that in which it exists,
especially a thing that is conspicuously
old-fashioned.

edition
[#rust]

Error:
editions are unstable

It's a type of versioning system for the
rust compiler. Versions of rust are
organised into 'editions'

When a new edition becomes available in
the compiler, crates must explicitly opt
in to it to take full advantage.

weight initialization

finite Markov decision process
FMDP

Prefix code
Prefix property
Requires that there is no whole code word
in the system that is a prefix (initial
segment) of any other code word in the
system.

Example:
A code with code words {9, 55} has the
prefix property; a code consisting of
{9, 5, 59, 55} does not, because "5"
is a prefix of "59" and also of "55".

noisy-or
[problog construct]

Parents independently influence a joint
effect.

If you define multiple rules with the same
head, they will be combined as a noisy-or
(a determistic or if all heads are
deterministic).

The strength of the noisy-or parents can
be learned using LFI (the inhibition
strengths).

problog
Can develop representations that are
compact and expressive but also easy to

in situ
On site / in position.

sampling with replacement
Find probability with replacement.

Choose one person’s name, put that
person’s name back in the hat, and then
choose another name.

One selection does not affect the outcome
of the other.

You have a 1 out of 7 (1/7) chance of
choosing the first name and a 1/7 chance
of choosing the second name.

Example:
You want to find the probability of
some event. There ares a number of
balls, cards or other objects, and you
replace the item each time you choose
one.

sampling without replacement
Each sample unit of the population has
only one chance to be selected in the
sample.

Example:
If one draws a simple random sample
such that no unit occurs more than one
time in the sample, the sample is
drawn without replacement.

Theia
Water came to Earth with the formation of
the Moon some 4.4 billion years ago.

The Moon was formed when Earth was hit by
a body about the size of Mars, also called
Theia.

Until now, scientists had assumed that
Theia originated in the inner solar system
near the Earth.

However, researchers from Münster can now
show that Theia comes from the outer solar
system, and it delivered large quantities
of water to Earth.

ODE
Ordinary Differential Equation
A differential equation containing one or
more functions of one independent variable
and the derivatives of those functions.

The term ordinary is used in contrast with
the term partial differential equation
which may be with respect to more than one
independent variable.

Neural Ordinary Differential Equations
[~2018]
[a new family of deep neural network models]

Instead of specifying a discrete sequence
of hidden layers, we parameterize the
derivative of the hidden state using a
neural network.

The output of the network is computed
using a black-box differential equation
solver.

Better than RNN on time-series data.

Espionage Act of 1917
Passed, along with the Trading with the
Enemy Act, just after the United States
entered World War I in April 1917.

Based on the Defense Secrets Act of 1911,
especially the notions of obtaining or
delivering information relating to
"national defense" to a person who was not
"entitled to have it", itself based on an
earlier British Official Secrets Act.

The Espionage Act law imposed much stiffer
penalties than the 1911 law, including the
death penalty.

generic programming
[style of computer programming]

Algorithms are written in terms of types
to-be-specified-later that are then
instantiated when needed for specific
types provided as parameters.

Allows most of this boilerplate to be
written once and for all, or even
generated mechanically, leaving the
programmer free to concentrate on the
important part of the algorithm. These
generic programs are much more adaptive
when faced with data structure evolution
because they contain many fewer lines of
typespecific code.

This might solve my
'try-to-filter-something-by-specific-way'
problem.

This is very old, but it shows that
exactly what I've been raving about.

Write code in a way where the programmer
can concentrate on the problem and not on
the extranous parsing and boilerplate.

for generic programming.

data List a = Nil | Cons a (List a)

binary tree

data BinTree = Empty
| Leaf Int
| Node BinTree BinTree

tree

data Tree a = Leaf a
| Branch (Tree a) (Tree a)

Generalised Algebraic Data Type
[#fp]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_algebraic_data_type

A GADT is a generalization of parametric
algebraic data types.

The 'A' in GADT always means Algebraic.

[ambiguous acronym]

Could be:
- Abstract data type
- Algebraic data type

ewwlinks +/"Algebraic Data Type is not to be confused with \*Abstract\* Data Type, which" "https://wiki.haskell.org/Algebraic_data_type"

Abstract Data Type is the opposite of Algebraic Data Type

Abstract Data Type
AbDT (to disambiguate with AlDT)
A type (or class) for objects whose
behavior is defined by a set of value and
a set of operations

May be defined as a "class of objects
whose logical behavior is defined by a set
of values and a set of operations".

The characteristic feature of an AbDT is
that the representation type is hidden.

Don't confuse with 'Algebraic' Data Type.

anthropic principle
[philosophical consideration]

Observations of the universe must be
compatible with the conscious and sapient
life that observes it.

Algebraic Data Type
AlDT (to disambiguate with AbDT)
[composite type]

Formed by combining other types.

A data type defined out of a combination
of two constructions:
- products, and
- sums.

Examples:
- Binary tree

Product
- A way to combine multiple values of
different types into one.

They're present in pretty much all
languages, often called "structs",
"records" or "tuples".

In object-oriented programming, a class
made up of public fields acts as a
product type.

Don't confuse with 'Abstract' Data Type.

data
data declaration

hoogle -i --color data

How one introduces new AlDT into Haskell. For example:

It looks like we are building a struct.
Not so much generic programming happening
here.

vim +/"data Val = Int Integer" "$MYGIT/acmeism/RosettaCodeData/Task/S-Expressions/Haskell/s-expressions.hs" create a datatype to hold an AST for an expression, one could use: data Exp = Ebin Operator Exp Exp | Eunary Operator Exp | Efun FunctionIdentifier [Exp] | Eid SimpleIdentifier where the types - Operator, - FunctionIdentifier, and - SimpleIdentifier are defined elsewhere. The types - Ebin - Eunary - Efun are all types of Exp Exp is partially recursive. An Ebin can hold 2 of Exp. deriving [#haskell] vim +/"| List $Val$ deriving (Eq, Show)" "$MYGIT/acmeism/RosettaCodeData/Task/S-Expressions/Haskell/s-expressions.hs"

data Deriving l
A deriving clause following a data type declaration.

factor graph
[bipartite graph]

Represents the factorization of a
function.

Used to represent factorization of a
probability distribution function,
enabling efficient computations, such as
the computation of marginal distributions
through the sum-product algorithm.

One of the important success stories of
factor graphs and the sum-product
algorithm is the decoding of capacity-
approaching error-correcting codes, such
as LDPC and turbo codes.

Factor graphs generalize constraint
graphs.

A factor whose value is either 0 or 1 is
called a constraint.

A constraint graph is a factor graph where
all factors are constraints.

The max-product algorithm for factor
graphs can be viewed as a generalization
of the arc-consistency algorithm for
constraint processing.

marginal distribution [of a subset of a collection of random variables]
The probability distribution of the
variables contained in the subset.

Gives the probabilities of various values
of the variables in the subset without
reference to the values of the other
variables.

This contrasts with a conditional
distribution.

conditional distribution
Gives the probabilities contingent upon
the values of the other variables.

conditional self-information

Variables-based models
- Factor graphs
- Arity
- Assignment weight
- Constraint satisfaction problem
- Consistent assignment

- Dynamic ordering
- Dependent factors
- Backtracking search
- Forward checking
- Most constrained variable
- Least constrained value

Approximate methods
- Beam search
- Iterated conditional modes
- Gibbs sampling

Factor graph transformations
- Conditioning
- Elimination

Bayesian networks
- Definition
- Locally normalized
- Marginalization

Probabilistic program
- Concept
- Summary

Inference
- Forward-backward algorithm
- Gibbs sampling
- Laplace smoothing

temporal differece
predicting this state and this tsate

Create an emmbedding

encodes all sensedory data (visual and action)

GAN
The generative network generates
candidates while the discriminative
network evaluates them.

Invented by Ian Goodfellow.

Contest often in the form of a zero-sum
game.

marginal utility

Non-zero-sum game
can be either:
- competitive, or
- non-competitive.

Zero-sum game
Strictly competitive game
Each participant's gain or loss of utility
is exactly balanced by the losses or gains
of the utility of the other participants.

If the total gains of the participants are
added up and the total losses are
subtracted, they will sum to zero.

Example:
- cutting a cake
iff all participants value each unit of
cake equally.
See "marginal utility".

In contrast, non-zero-sum describes a
situation in which the interacting
parties' aggregate gains and losses can be
less than or more than zero.

Most often solved with:
- the minimax theorem
- Nash equilibrium

minimax theorem
Closely related to linear
programming duality.

discriminator [network]
[#GAN]

Evaluates candidates from a generative
network.

Distributed dense word vectors
Shown to be effective at capturing
token-level semantic and syntactic
regularities in language, while topic
models can form interpretable
representations over documents.

embedding
A feature vector representation of
something.

Good definition:
The model's internal representation of
an input.

Example::
- Word vector

latent space
The model thinks that these variables are
correlated and have meaning, but we have
no idea why.

input embedder
The first stage of the network, meant to
convert the input into a feature vector
representation.

categorical variable
[variable]

Can take on one of a limited, and usually
fixed number of possible values, assigning
each individual or other unit of
observation to a particular group or
nominal category on the basis of some
qualitative property.

observable variable
manifest variable
A variable that can be directly measured
or observed.

Opposite of a latent variable,

latent variable
Can not be directly observed.

Needs a manifest variable assigned to it
as an indicator to test whether it is
present.

latent variable model
[statistical model]

Relates a set of observable variables to a
set of latent variables.

putative gene structure

modus tollens
method of denying
[rule of logic]

Microcode
[computer hardware technique]

Imposes an interpreter between the CPU
hardware and the programmer-visible
instruction set architecture of the
computer.

Perplexity
A measure of the quality of a language
model.

vimlinks +/"Evaluating language models: perplexity" "http://frnsys.com/ai_notes/machine_learning/natural_language_processing.html"

http://www.exploredatabase.com/2020/04/evaluation-of-language-model-using-perplexity.html
A way to measure the quality of a LM
independent of any application.

Measures how well a probability model
predicts the test data.

The model that assigns a higher
probability to the test data is the better
model.
A good model will assign a high
probability to a real sentence.

For example, let us assume that we
estimate the probability of a test data
using a bi-gram model and a tri-gram
model.

The better model among these is the one
that has a tighter fit to the test data,
or predicts the details of the test data
better.

Lower the perplexity, higher the
probability.

An intrinsic evaluation metric (a metric
that evaluates the given model independent
of any application such as tagging, speech
recognition etc.).

ambiguity
One of the greatest challenges to NLP:
Example:
- Fed raises interest rates, where
"raises" is the verb, and "Fed" is the
noun phrase
- Fed raises interest rates, where
"interest" is the verb, and "Fed raises"
is the noun phrase

Occurs at many levels:
- acoustic
e.g. mixing up similar-sounding words
- syntactic level
e.g. multiple plausible grammatical
parsings of a sentence
- semantic level
e.g. some words can mean multiple things
("bank" as in a river or a financial
institution); this is called word sense
ambiguity
- discourse (multi-clause)
e.g. unclear what a pronoun is referring
to

synset
A set of synonyms that represent a single
sense of a word.

wordform
The full inflected surface form.

Example:
"cat" and "cats" are different wordforms.

lemma
The same stem, part of speech, rough word sense

Example:
"cat" and "cats" are the same lemma.

One lemma can have many meanings.

Example:
a bank can hold investments...
agriculture on the east bank...

sense
A discrete representation of an aspect of
a word's meaning.

The usages of bank in the previous example
have a different sense.

homonyms
Words that share form but have unrelated,
distinct meanings (such as "bank").

- Homographs: bank/bank, bat/bat
- Homophones: write/right, piece/peace

polysemy
A polysemous word has related meanings,
for example:

- "the bank was built in 1875 ("bank" = a
building belonging to a financial
institution)"
- "I withdrew money from the bank ("bank"
= a financial institution)"

- Systematic polysemy, or metonymy, is
when the meanings have a systematic
relationship.
- For example, "school", "university",
"hospital" - all can mean the
institution or the building, so the
systematic relationship here is building
<=> organization.
- Another example is author <=> works of
author, e.g. "Jane Austen wrote Emma"
and "I love Jane Austen".

synonyms
Different words that have the same
propositional meaning in some or all
contexts.

However, there may be no examples of
perfect synonymy since even if
propositional meaning is identical, they
may vary in notions of politeness or other
usages and so on.

Examples:
- "water" and "H2O" - each are more
appropriate in different contexts.
- "big" and "large" - sometimes they can
be swapped, sometimes they cannot:
- That's a big plane. How large is that
plane? (Acceptable)
- Miss Nelson became kind of a big
sister to Benjamin. Miss Nelson became
kind of a large sister to Benjamin
(Not as acceptable)

The latter works less because "big" has
multiple senses, one of which does not
correspond to "large".

antonyms
Senses which are opposite with respect to
one feature of meaning, but otherwise are
similar, such as dark/light, short/fast,
etc.

hyponym
One sense is a hyponym of another if the
first sense is more specific (i.e. denotes
a subclass of the other).

Examples:
- car is a hyponym of vehicle
- mango is a hyponym of fruit

hypernym
superordinate
Examples:
- vehicle is a hypernym of car
- fruit is a hypernym of mango

token
An instance of that type in running text;
$N$ = number of tokens, i.e. counting
every word in the sentence, regardless of
uniqueness.

type
An element of the vocabulary; $V$ =
vocabulary = set of types ($|V|$ = the
size of the vocabulary), i.e. counting
every unique word in the sentence.

Tensorflow
http://theprofessionalspoint.blogspot.com/2019/05/tensorflow-tensors-computational-graphs.html

Estimator
[#tensorflow]
[Tensorflow API]

Used to implement algorithms.

Can import following estimators APIs to
solve a lot of classification and
regression problems:
- tf.estimator.LinearRegressor
- tf.estimator.LinearClassifier
- tf.estimator.BoostedTreesRegressor
- tf.estimator.BoostedTreesClassifier
- tf.estimator.DNNClassifier
- tf.estimator.DNNLinearCombinedClassifier

Used for
- creating computational graphs,
- initializing variables,
- training the model, and
- saving checkpoint
- logging files for Tensorboard.

In order to use estimators, must create:
- feature columns, and
- input functions.

Input function
[#tensorflow]

Used for passing input data to the model
for training and evaluation.

Feature columns
Specifications for how the model should
interpret the input data.

We will see these concepts in detail when
we solve a problem using TensorFlow in my
future posts.

locus
loci (plural)
[#genetics]

A fixed position on a chromosome, like the
position of a gene or a marker (genetic
marker).

Example:
Each chromosome carries many genes;
human's estimated 'haploid' protein
coding genes are 19,000–20,000, on the
23 different chromosomes.

F-algebra
[#category theory]

F-algebras generalize algebraic structure.

Rewriting the algebraic laws in terms of
morphisms eliminates all references to
quantified elements from the axioms, and
these algebraic laws may then be glued
together in terms of a single functor F,
the signature.

F-algebras can also be used to represent
data structures used in programming, such
as lists and trees.

catamorphism
[#category theory]

Deconstructs a data structure with an
F-algebra for its underlying functor.

A catamorphism for some F-algebra (X,f) is
denoted (| f |)F.

When the functor F can be determined
unambiguously, it is usually written (|φ|)
or cata φ.

Due to this choice of notation, a
catamorphism is sometimes called a banana
and the (|.|) notation is sometimes
referred to as banana brackets.

Examples:
$MYGIT/acmeism/RosettaCodeData/Task/Catamorphism/C++/catamorphism.cpp The unique homomorphism from an initial algebra into some other algebra. In FP, catamorphisms provide generalizations of folds of lists to arbitrary algebraic data types, which can be described as initial algebras. The dual concept is that of anamorphism that generalize unfolds. A hylomorphism is the composition of an anamorphism followed by a catamorphism. existential types [#haskell] ifl existential type haskell Normally when creating a new type using type, newtype, data, etc., every type variable that appears on the right-hand side must also appear on the left-hand side. Existential types are a way of turning this off. template Haskell [#haskell] generics [#haskell] type applications [#haskell] TypeInType [#haskell] [WIP language extension] Modern type-level programming. Covers a wealth of features, all with the aim of creating a dependently typed Haskell. language extensions [#haskell] cd$MYGIT/facebook/duckling/Duckling/; grep -HnR "# LANGUAGE" . | scrape "LANGUAGE [^ ]+" | uniqnosort
sed -n "s/.*LANGUAGE $$.*$$/\1\n    [haskell language extension]\n/ip"

PostfixOperators

Normally, when you write, for example:

(4 !)

it expands into:

\x -> 4 ! x

or, equivalently:

\x -> (!) 4 x

PostfixOperators instead expands this left section into:

(!) 4

Data.Typeable and Data.Data

Rather mysterious.

Starting out as a Haskell newbie you see
them once in a while and wonder what use
they are.

Their Haddock pages are pretty opaque and
scary in places.

Here's a quick rundown I thought I'd write
to get people up to speed nice and quick
so that they can start using it.

It's really rather beautiful as a way to

The general approach is that you don't
know what data types are being given to
you, but you want to work upon them almost
as if you did.

The technique is simple when broken down.

DeriveDataTypeable

Now you can derive instances of both
Data.Typeable and Data.Data:

data X = X
deriving (Data,Typeable)

Now we can start doing generic operations
upon X.

MultiParamTypeClasses

DeriveAnyClass

DeriveGeneric

NoRebindableSyntax

TypeFamilies

LambdaCase

tuple constructor

Example:

(,,,,) 1 "hello" 6.5 (Just ()) [5, 5, 6, 7]

See:
vim +/"TupleSections" "\$HOME/notes/glossary.txt"

TupleSections

Allows you to:
- omit values from the tuple syntax,
unifying the standard tuple sugar with
the tuple constructor syntax to form one
generalized syntax for tuples.

Normally, tuples are constructed with the
standard tuple sugar, which looks like
this:

(1, "hello", 6.5, Just (), [5, 5, 6, 7])

This could be considered shorthand for the
following explicit tuple constructor use:

(,,,,) 1 "hello" 6.5 (Just ()) [5, 5, 6, 7]

However, the explicit tuple constructor
(,,,,) could just as easily be considered
section sugar for tuples, expanding to:

\v w x y z -> (v, w, x, y, z)

Looking at it this way allows us to ask,
“Why can’t we partially section a tuple?
After all, (+) is valid, (,) is valid, and
(1 +) is valid, but (1,) is not valid. The
TupleSections extension fixes this
oversight.

With TupleSections you can now write, for
example:

(1, "hello",, Just (),)

and have it mean the same as

\x y -> (1, "hello", x, Just (), y)

NamedFieldPuns

When using records, it is common to write
a pattern that binds a variable with the
same name as a record field, such as:

data C = C {a :: Int}
f (C {a = a}) = a

Record punning permits the variable name
to be elided, so one can simply write

f (C {a}) = a

RecordWildCards

AllowAmbiguousTypes

ExistentialQuantification

FlexibleContexts

FlexibleInstances

RankNTypes

ScopedTypeVariables

StandaloneDeriving

TypeOperators

BangPatterns

Math
Purely functional.

vimlinks +/"Mathematics is a purely functional language. " "http://matt.might.net/articles/discrete-math-and-code/"

The Code of Hammurabi
A well-preserved Babylonian code of law of
ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about
1754 BC (Middle Chronology).

One of the oldest deciphered writings of
significant length in the world.

Consists of 282 laws, with scaled
punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye,
a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as
depending on social status and gender, of
slave versus free, man versus woman.

contract
[#racket]

Rich, expressive contracts take the place
of dependent types.

disjoint union
tagged union
discriminated union
[...of a family of sets]

A modified union operation that indexes
the elements according to which set they
originated in.

universal type
[#racket]

Racket is an untyped languages.

vimlinks +/"no need for a special embedding" "http://matt.might.net/articles/discrete-math-and-code/"

The universal type is already the sum
of all types, there is no need for a
special embedding.

set
[#discrete math]

Code implementations /
representation / encoding:
- a type
- inheritance
subsets
- collection
power of a set
- red-black tree
- predicate
subset

sequence
[#discrete math]

Code implementations /
representation / encoding:
- functional programming list type
- racket / lisp lists

vector
[#discrete math]

Code implementations /
representation / encoding:
- array

infinite sequence
[#discrete math]

Code implementations /
representation / encoding:
- stream

regression
Like the Rosetta Stone between math,
statistics, machine learning, and
programming.

linear regression
A basic and commonly used type of
predictive analysis.

The overall idea of regression is to
examine two things:
- (1) does a set of predictor variables do
a good job in predicting an outcome
(dependent) variable?
- (2) Which variables in particular are
significant predictors of the outcome
variable, and in what way do
they–indicated by the magnitude and sign
of the beta estimates–impact the outcome
var`